Maeri I, El Ayadi A, Getahun M, Charlebois E, Akatukwasa C, Tumwebaze D, et al. ‘How can I tell?’ Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV ‘test-and-treat’ trial. AIDS Care. 2016;28(3):59–66.
Deribe K, Woldemichael K, Wondafrash M, Haile A, Amberbir A. Disclosure experience and associated factors among HIV positive men and women clinical service users in southwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2008;29(8):81.
Neville Miller A, Rubin DL. Factors leading to self-disclosure of a positive HIV diagnosis in Nairobi, Kenya: people living with HIV/AIDS in the sub-Sahara. Qual Health Res. 2007;17(5):586–98.
Greeff M, Phetlhu R, Makoae LN, Dlamini PS, Holzemer WL, Naidoo JR, et al. Disclosure of HIV status: experiences and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS and nurses involved in their care in Africa. Qual Health Res. 2008;18(3):311–24.
Damian DJ, Ngahatilwa D, Fadhili H, Mkiza JG, Mahande MJ, Ngocho JS, et al. Factors associated with HIV status disclosure to partners and its outcomes among HIV-positive women attending Care and Treatment Clinics at Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(3):e0211921.
Alema HB, Yalew WA, Beyene MB, Woldu MG. HIV positive status disclosure and associated factors among HIV positive adults in Axum health facilities, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Sci J Public Health. 2015;3(1):61.
UNAIDS. Ending AIDS: Progress towards the 90–90–90 targets. Geneva: UNAIDS/JC2900E. 2017. http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/Global_AIDS_update_2017_en.pdf.
Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS), Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC). Tanzania HIV Impact Survey (THIS) 2016-2017: Final Report. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: TACAIDS, ZAC. 2018. https://www.malecircumcision.org/file/62748/download?token=qValbTG2.
UNAIDS. Global AIDS update 2019—Communities at the centre—Defending rights, breaking barriers, reaching people with HIV services. 2019. https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/2019-global-AIDS-update_en.pdf. Accessed 11 Jun 2020.
Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS), Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC). Tanzania HIV Impact Survey (THIS) 2016-2017: Final Report. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2018. https://www.nbs.go.tz/nbs/takwimu/this2016-17/THIS_2016-2017_Final_Report.pdf. Accessed 18 Sept 2018.
UNAIDS. Opening up the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS/WHO. 2000. https://www.who.int/ethics/topics/opening_up_ethics_and_disclosure_en_2000.pdf.
Walcott MM, Hatcher AM, Kwena Z, Turan JM. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2013;2(13):1115.
Maeri I, El Ayadi A, Getahun M, Charlebois E, Akatukwasa C, Tumwebaze D, et al. “How can I tell?” Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV “test-and-treat” trial. AIDS Care. 2016;28(Suppl 3):59–66.
Parsons JT, VanOra J, Missildine W, Purcell DW, Gómez CA. Positive and negative consequences of HIV disclosure among seropositive injection drug users. AIDS Educ Prev Off Publ Int Soc AIDS Educ. 2004;16(5):459–75.
Przybyla SM, Golin CE, Widman L, Grodensky CA, Earp JA, Suchindran C. Serostatus disclosure to sexual partners among people living with HIV: examining the roles of partner characteristics and stigma. AIDS Care. 2013;25(5):566–72.
Hosseinzadeh H, Hossain SZ, Bazargan-Hejazi S. Perceived stigma and social risk of HIV testing and disclosure among Iranian-Australians living in the Sydney metropolitan area. Sex Health. 2012;9(2):171–7.
Dageid W, Govender K, Gordon SF. Masculinity and HIV disclosure among heterosexual South African men: implications for HIV/AIDS intervention. Cult Health Sex. 2012;14(8):925–40.
Stirratt MJ, Remien RH, Smith A, Copeland OQ, Dolezal C, Krieger D, et al. The role of HIV serostatus disclosure in antiretroviral medication adherence. AIDS Behav. 2006;10(5):483–93.
Simbayi LC, Kalichman SC, Strebel A, Cloete A, Henda N, Mqeketo A. Disclosure of HIV status to sex partners and sexual risk behaviours among HIV-positive men and women, Cape Town, South Africa. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83(1):29–34.
Pinkerton SD, Galletly CL. Reducing HIV transmission risk by increasing serostatus disclosure: a mathematical modeling analysis. AIDS Behav. 2007;11(5):698–705.
Shacham E, Small E, Onen N, Stamm K, Overton ET. Serostatus disclosure among adults with HIV in the era of HIV therapy. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2012;26(1):29–35.
Cissé M, Diop S, Abadie A, Henry E, Bernier A, Fugon L, et al. Factors associated with HIV voluntary disclosure to one’s steady sexual partner in mali: results from a community-based study. J Biosoc Sci. 2016;48(1):51–65.
Conserve DF, King G, Dévieux JG, Jean-Gilles M, Malow R. Determinants of HIV serostatus disclosure to sexual partner among HIV-positive alcohol users in Haiti. AIDS Behav. 2014;18(6):1037–45.
Obermeyer CM, Baijal P, Pegurri E. Facilitating HIV disclosure across diverse settings: a review. Am J Public Health. 2011;101(6):1011–23.
Hallberg D, Kimario TD, Mtuya C, Msuya M, Björling G. Factors affecting HIV disclosure among partners in Morongo, Tanzania. Int J Afr Nurs Sci. 2019;1(10):49–54.
Gultie T, Genet M, Sebsibie G. Disclosure of HIV-positive status to sexual partner and associated factors among ART users in Mekelle Hospital. HIV/AIDS Res Palliative Care. 2015;9(7):209–14.
Dessalegn NG, Hailemichael RG, Shewa-amare A, Sawleshwarkar S, Lodebo B, Amberbir A, et al. HIV Disclosure: HIV-positive status disclosure to sexual partners among individuals receiving HIV care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0211967.
Burmen B, Obunga J, Mutai K. Disclosure status and disclosure intentions among HIV positive persons in rural western Kenya, 2011–2012. Cogent Med. 2017;4(1):1291096.
Ngonzi J, Mugyenyi G, Kivunike M, Mugisha J, Salongo W, Masembe S, et al. Frequency of HIV status disclosure, associated factors and outcomes among HIV positive pregnant women at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, southwestern Uganda. Pan Afr Med J. 2019;32:200.
Ebuenyi ID, Ogoina D, Ikuabe PO, Harry TC, Inatimi O, Chukwueke OU. Prevalence pattern and determinants of disclosure of hiv status in an anti retroviral therapy clinic in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Afr J Infect Dis. 2014;8(2):27–30.
Ebuenyi ID, Ogoina D, Ikuabe P, Harry T, Inatimi O, Chukwueke U. HIV status disclosure in an anti retroviral therapy clinic in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;1(21):122–3.
Taylor K, Lamb M, Lahuerta M, Ahoua L, Abacassamo F, Elul B. Patterns and Predictors of HIV Status Disclosure in the 12 Months Following Diagnosis in Mozambique. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999. 2020 Feb 20;.
Yonah G, Fredrick F, Leyna G. HIV serostatus disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS in Mwanza, Tanzania. AIDS Res Ther. 2014;22(11):5.
Mwanga JA. HIV sero status disclosure and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS attending a care and treatment centre in Kisarawe district hospital. Tanzania: Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences; 2012.
Longinetti E, Santacatterina M, El-Khatib Z. Gender perspective of risk factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2014;17(9):e95440.
Antelman G, Smith Fawzi MC, Kaaya S, Mbwambo J, Msamanga GI, Hunter DJ, et al. Predictors of HIV-1 serostatus disclosure: a prospective study among HIV-infected pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. AIDS Lond Engl. 2001;15(14):1865–74.
Taraphdar P, Dasgupta A, Saha B. Disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS. Indian J Community Med. 2007;32(4):280.
Trinh TT, Yatich N, Ngomoa R, McGrath CJ, Richardson BA, Sakr SR, et al. Partner disclosure and early CD4 response among HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral treatment in Nairobi Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(10):e0163594.
Amoran OE. Predictors of disclosure of sero-status to sexual partners among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ogun State, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2012;15(4):385–90.
Agbor IE, Etokidem AJ, Ugwa EA. Factors responsible for disclosure of hiv seropositivity among residents of Cross River State, Nigeria. Ind J Commun Med. 2017.
Whembolua G-L, Conserve DF, Thomas K, Tshiswaka DI, Handler L. HIV serostatus disclosure in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a systematic review. AIDS Care. 2019;31(4):489–93.
Ramlagan S, Matseke G, Rodriguez VJ, Jones DL, Peltzer K, Ruiter RAC, et al. Determinants of disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive status, by pregnant women in rural South Africa. SAHARA J Soc Asp HIV AIDS. 2018;15(1):155–63.
Hayes-Larson E, Hirsch-Moverman Y, Saito S, Frederix K, Pitt B, Maama BL, et al. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of HIV disclosure among TB-HIV patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Lesotho. AIDS Care. 2017;29(8):978–84.
Atuyambe LM, Ssegujja E, Ssali S, Tumwine C, Nekesa N, Nannungi A, et al. HIV/AIDS status disclosure increases support, behavioural change and HIV prevention in the long term: a case for an Urban Clinic, Kampala, Uganda. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14(1):276.
Kadowa I, Nuwaha F. Factors influencing disclosure of HIV positive status in Mityana district of Uganda. Afr Health Sci. 2009;9(1):26–33.
Kiarie JN, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. Compliance with antiretroviral regimens to prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Kenya. AIDS Lond Engl. 2003;17(1):65–71.
Kiula ES, Damian DJ, Msuya SE. Predictors of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners among HIV-positive pregnant women in Morogoro, Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2013;3(13):433.
Maman S, Mbwambo JK, Hogan NM, Weiss E, Kilonzo GP, Sweat MD. High rates and positive outcomes of HIV-serostatus disclosure to sexual partners: reasons for cautious optimism from a voluntary counseling and testing clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. AIDS Behav. 2003;7(4):373–82.
Medley A, Garcia-Moreno C, McGill S, Maman S. Rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:299–307.
Sariah A, Rugemalila J, Somba M, Minja A, Makuchilo M, Tarimo E, et al. “Experiences with disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child”: perspectives of healthcare providers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1083.
Vaz LME, Maman S, Eng E, Barbarin OA, Tshikandu T, Behets F. Patterns of disclosure of HIV-status to infected children in a sub-Saharan African Setting. J Dev Behav Pediatr JDBP. 2011;32(4):307–15.
Vreeman RC, Gramelspacher AM, Gisore PO, Scanlon ML, Nyandiko WM. Disclosure of HIV status to children in resource-limited settings: a systematic review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:1.
Pinzón-Iregui MC, Beck-Sagué CM, Malow RM. Disclosure of Their HIV status to infected children: a review of the literature. J Trop Pediatr. 2013;59(2):84–9.
Exavery A, Charles J, Kuhlik E, Barankena A, Koler A, Kikoyo L, et al. Understanding the association between caregiver sex and HIV infection among orphans and vulnerable children in Tanzania: learning from the USAID Kizazi Kipya project. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020;20(1):275.
USAID Kizazi Kipya Project Case Management and Child Protection Advisor. Standard Operating Procedure: Case Management within the USAID Kizazi Kipya Project (version 1). Dar es Salaam: Pact; 2017.
Rodrıguez G, Elo I. Intra-class correlation in random-effects models for binary data. Stata J. 2003;3(1):32–46.
University of Bristol. What are multilevel models and why should I use them? 2018. http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/learning/multilevel-models/what-why.html. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
Kamuzora P, Gilson L. Factors influencing implementation of the Community Health Fund in Tanzania. Health Policy Plan. 2007;22(2):95–102.
Kapologwe NA, Kagaruki GB, Kalolo A, Ally M, Shao A, Meshack M, et al. Barriers and facilitators to enrollment and re-enrollment into the community health funds/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania: a cross-sectional inquiry on the effects of socio-demographic factors and social marketing strategies. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):308.
Macha J, Kuwawenaruwa A, Makawia S, Mtei G, Borghi J. Determinants of community health fund membership in Tanzania: a mixed methods analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;20:14.
Macha J, Harris B, Garshong B, Ataguba JE, Akazili J, Kuwawenaruwa A, et al. Factors influencing the burden of health care financing and the distribution of health care benefits in Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa. Health Policy Plan. 2012;27(Suppl 1):i46–54.
Vyas S, Kumaranayake L. Constructing socio-economic status indices: how to use principal components analysis. Health Policy Plan. 2006;21(6):459–68.
Marks G, Crepaz N. HIV-positive men’s sexual practices in the context of self-disclosure of HIV status. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;27(1):79–85.
Dominic B. ‘Women’s Education a tool of social transformation’—a historical study based on Kerala Society. 2011;2(10):7.
Tesfaye T, Darega J, Belachew T, Abera A. HIV positive sero-status disclosure and its determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS following ART clinic in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia: a facility- based cross-sectional study. Arch Public Health. 2018;15:76.
Akani CI, Erhabor O. Rate, pattern and barriers of HIV serostatus disclosure in a resource-limited setting in the Niger delta of Nigeria. Trop Doct. 2016;36:2.
Latham CE, Morris A. Effects of formal training in communication skills on the ability of veterinary students to communicate with clients. Vet Rec. 2007;160(6):181–6.
Gholami HR, Sarhangi F, Nouri JM, Javadi M. Nurses’ communication skills in military hospitals. J Nurs Midwifery Sci. 2015;2(1):40.
Abaerei AA, Ncayiyana J, Levin J. Health-care utilization and associated factors in Gauteng province, South Africa. Glob Health Action. 2017;10:1.
Staveteig S, Wang S, Head SK, Bradley SEK, Nybro E. Demographic patterns of HIV testing uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ICF International; 2013. Report No.: DHS Comparative Reports No. 30. https://dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-CR30-Comparative-Reports.cfm. Accessed 11 Apr 2019
Ahn JV, Bailey H, Malyuta R, Volokha A, Thorne C, Ukraine Cohort of HIV-infected Childbearing Women in EuroCoord. Factors associated with non-disclosure of hiv status in a cohort of childbearing HIV-positive women in Ukraine. AIDS Behav. 2016;20(1):174–83.
Corrigan P. The stigma of disease and disability: Understanding causes and overcoming injustices. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. 2014. https://www.apa.org/pi/disability/resources/publications/newsletter/2014/07/fresh-perspectives. Accessed 11 Jun 2019.
Corrigan PW, Watson AC. Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness. World Psychiatry. 2002;1(1):16–20.
Rohwerder B. Disability stigma in developing countries. 2018, p. 26. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5b18fe3240f0b634aec30791/Disability_stigma_in_developing_countries.pdf.