Mo’ez Al-Islam EF, Jahrami HA, Obaideen AA, Madkour MI. Impact of diurnal intermittent fasting during Ramadan on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in healthy people: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Intermed Metab. 2019;15:18–26.
Longo VD, Panda S. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time-restricted feeding in healthy lifespan. Cell Metab. 2016;23:1048–59.
Davis CS, Clarke RE, Coulter SN, Rounsefell KN, Walker RE, Rauch CE, Huggins CE, Ryan L. Intermittent energy restriction and weight loss: a systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70:292.
Attum B, Shamoon Z. Cultural competence in the care of Muslim patients and their families. In: Stat Pearls. StatPearls Publishing. 2019. (In press).
Melkani GC, Panda S. Time-restricted feeding for prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. J Physiol. 2017;595:3691–700.
Horne BD, Muhlestein JB, Anderson JL. Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102:464–70.
Mattson MP, Wan R. Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:129–37.
Jakubowicz D, Wainstein J, Landau Z, Raz I, Ahren B, Chapnik N, Ganz T, Menaged M, Barnea M, Bar-Dayan Y, Froy O. Influences of breakfast on clock gene expression and postprandial glycemia in healthy individuals and individuals with diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:1573–9.
Venegas-Borsellino C, Martindale RG. From religion to secularism: the benefits of fasting. Curr Nutr Rep. 2018;7:131–8.
Chen X. Fetus, fasting, and festival: the persistent effects of in utero social shocks. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2014;3:165–9.
Hartman AL, Rubenstein JE, Kossoff EH. Intermittent fasting: a “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures? Epilepsy Res. 2012;104:275–9.
Muller H, de Toledo FW, Resch KL. Fasting followed by vegetarian diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review. Scand J Rheumatol. 2001;30:1–10.
Karaagaoglu N, Yucecan S. Some behavioural changes observed among fasting subjects, their nutritional habits and energy expenditure in Ramadan. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2000;51:125–34.
Iraki L, Bogdan A, Hakkou F, Amrani N, Abkari A, Touitou Y. Ramadan diet restrictions modify the circadian time structure in humans. A study on plasma gastrin, insulin, glucose, and calcium and on gastric pH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:1261–73.
Sievert K, Hussain SM, Page MJ, Wang Y, Hughes HJ, Malek M, Cicuttini FM. Effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2019;364:l42.
Kubota Y, Iso H, Sawada N, Tsugane S, JPHC Study Group. Association of breakfast intake with incident stroke and coronary heart disease: the Japan Public Health Center-Based Study. Stroke. 2016;47:477–81.
Khafaji HA, Bener A, Osman M, Al Merri A, Al Suwaidi J. The impact of diurnal fasting during Ramadan on the lipid profile, hs-CRP, and serum leptin in stable cardiac patients. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2012;8:7–14.
St-Onge MP, Ard J, Baskin ML, Chiuve SE, Johnson HM, Kris-Etherton P, Varady K. Meal timing and frequency: implications for cardiovascular disease prevention: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135:e96–121.
Nematy M, Alinezhad-Namaghi M, Rashed MM, Mozhdehifard M, Sajjadi SS, Akhlaghi S, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study. Nutr J. 2012;11:69.
Ibrahim O, Kamaruddin N, Wahab N, Rahman M. Ramadan fasting and cardiac biomarkers in patients with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Internet J Cardiovasc Res. 2010;7(2).
Mattson MP, Wan R. Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16(3):129–37.
Rea IM, Gibson DS, McGilligan V, McNerlan SE, Alexander HD, Ross OA. Age and age-related diseases: role of inflammation triggers and cytokines. Front Immunol. 2018;9:586.
Alam I, Larbi A, Pawelec G. Aging affects the number of T and B cells in a group of elderly in developing countries—a pilot study from Pakistan. Age. 2012;35:1521–30.
Alam I, Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Pawelec G, Larbi A. Relationships between the inflammatory potential of the diet, aging and anthropometric measurements in a cross-sectional study in Pakistan. Nutr Healthy Aging. 2018;4:335–43.
Stull AJ, Apolzan JW, Thalacker-Mercer AE, Iglay HB, Campbell WW. Liquid and solid meal replacement products differentially affect postprandial appetite and food intake in older adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108:1226–30.
Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza’ai H, Rahmat A, Abed Y. Obesity and inflammation: the linking mechanism and the complications. Arch Med Sci. 2017;1:851–63.
Wang H, Ye J. Regulation of energy balance by inflammation: common theme in physiology and pathology. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 2015;16:47–54.
Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hussey JR, Hébert JR. Designing and developing a literature-derived, population-based dietary inflammatory index. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17:1689–96.
Simes J, Robledo KP, White HD, Espinoza D, Stewart RA, Sullivan DR, Zeller T, Hague W, Nestel PJ, Glasziou PP, Keech AC, Elliott J, Blankenberg S, Tonkin AM, LIPID Study Investigators. d-Dimer predicts long-term cause-specific mortality, cardiovascular events, and cancer in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2018;138(7):712–23.
Muse ED, Feldman DI, Blaha MJ, Dardari ZA, Blumenthal RS, Budoff MJ, Nasir K, Criqui MH, Cushman M, McClelland RL, Allison MA. The association of resistin with cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2015;239(1):101–8.
Bakhotmah BA. The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan) among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Nutr J. 2011;10:84.
Michalsen A, Li C. Fasting therapy for treating and preventing disease-current state of evidence. Forsch Komplementmed. 2013;20:444–53.
Baccouche H, Hellara I, Khochtali I, Grissa MH, Boubaker H, Beltaief K, Buida W, Najjar F, Boukef R, Hassine M, Nouira S, the Ramadan Research Group. Ramadan fasting effects on metabolic parameters in elderly persons with cardiovascular risk factors. J Aging Res Clin Pract. 2014;3:200–5.
Almeneessier AS, Alzoghaibi M, BaHammam AA, Ibrahim MG, Olaish AH, Nashwan SZ, BaHammam AS. The effects of diurnal intermittent fasting on the wake-promoting neurotransmitter orexin-A. Ann Thorac Med. 2018;13:48–54.
Shao Y, Lim GJ, Chua CL, Wong YF, Yeoh EC, Low SK, Sum CF. The effect of Ramadan fasting and continuing sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor use on ketonemia, blood pressure and renal function in Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018;142:85–91.
Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, Holloszy JO. Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2004;101:6659–63.
Gao Q, Camous X, Lu YX, Lim ML, Larbi A, Ng TP. Novel inflammatory markers associated with cognitive performance: Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. Neurobiol Aging. 2016;39:140–6.
Ng TP, Camous X, Nyunt MSZ, Vasudev A, Tan CTY, Feng L, Fulop T, Yap KB, Larbi A. Markers of T-cell senescence and physical frailty: insights from Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. NPJ Aging Mech Dis. 2015;1:15005.
Fulop T, Witkowski JM, Olivieri F, Larbi A. The integration of inflammaging in age-related diseases. Semin Immunol. 2018;40:17–35.
Christensen K, Thinggaard M, McGue M, Rexbye H, Hjelmborg JV, Aviv A, Gunn D, van der Ouderaa F, Vaupel JW. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study. BMJ. 2009;339:b5262.
Manoogian ENC, Panda S. Circadian rhythms, time-restricted feeding, and healthy aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2017;39:59–67.
Glesson M, Bishop NC, Stensel DJ, Lindley MR, Mastana SS, Nimmo MA. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:607–15.
Waterhouse J, Alkib L, Reilly T. Effects of Ramadan upon fluid and food intake, fatigue, and physical, mental, and social activities: a comparison between the UK and Libya. Chronobiol Int. 2008;25:697–724.
Lamri-Senhadji MY, El Kebir B, Belleville J, Bouchenak M. Assessment of dietary consumption and time-course of changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins before, during and after Ramadan in young Algerian adults. Singap Med J. 2009;50:288–94.
Shadman Z, Poorsoltan N, Akhoundan M, Larijani B, Soleymanzadeh M, Zhand CA, Rohani ZA, Nikoo MK. Ramadan major dietary patterns, Iran. Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16:e16801.
Bouguerra R, Belkadhi A, Jabrane J, Hamzaoui J, Maatki C, Ben Rayana MC, Ben Slama C. Metabolic effects of the month of Ramadan fasting on type 2 diabetes. East Mediterr Health J. 2003;9:1099–108.
Salahuddin M, Sayed Ashfak AH, Syed SR, Badaam KM. Effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight, (BP) and biochemical parameters in middle aged hypertensive subjects: an Observational Trial. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8:16–8.
Perk G, Ghanem J, Aamar S, Ben-Ishay D, Bursztyn M. The effect of the fast of Ramadan on ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives. J Hum Hypertens. 2001;15:723–5.
Akturk IF, Biyik I, Kocas C, Yalcin AA, Erturk M, Uzun F. Effects of Ramadan fasting on lipid profile, brain nadriuretic peptide, renal functions and electrolyte levels in patients with hypertension. Int J Cardiol. 2012;155:S134.
Akanji AO, Mojiminiyi OA, Abdella N. Beneficial changes in serum apo A-1 and its ratio to apo B and HDL in stable hyperlipidaemic subjects after Ramadan fasting in Kuwait. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54:508–13.
Adlouni A, Ghalim N, Benslimane A, Lecerf JM, Saile R. Fasting during Ramadan induces a marked increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Ann Nutr Metab. 1997;41:242–9.
Adawi M, Watad A, Brown S, Aazza K, Aazza H, Zouhir M, Sharif K, Ghanayem K, Farah R, Mahagna H, Fiordoro S. Ramadan fasting exerts immunomodulatory effects: insights from a systematic review. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1144.
Faris MA, Kacimi S, Al-Kurd RAA, Fararjeh MA, Bustanji YK, Mohammad MK, Salem ML. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects. Nutr Res. 2012;32:947–55.
Ajabnoor GMA, Bahijri S, Shaik NA, Borai A, Alamoudi AA, Al-Aama JY, Chrousos GP. Ramadan fasting in Saudi Arabia is associated with altered expression of CLOCK, DUSP and IL-1alpha genes, as well as changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174342.
Marta RF, Goette NP, Lev PR, Chazarreta CD, Pirola CJ, Molinas FC. Normal platelets possess the soluble form of IL-6 receptor. Cytokine. 2005;29(1):13–7.
Lindemann S, Tolley ND, Dixon DA, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA, Weyrich AS. Activated platelets mediate inflammatory signaling by regulated interleukin 1beta synthesis. J Cell Biol. 2001;154(3):485–90.
Campbell RA, Schwertz H, Hottz ED, Rowley JW, Manne BK, Washington AV, Hunter-Mellado R, Tolley ND, Christensen M, Eustes AS, Montenont E, Bhatlekar S, Ventrone CH, Kirkpatrick BD, Pierce KK, Whitehead SS, Diehl SA, Bray PF, Zimmerman GA, Kosaka Y, Bozza PT, Bozza FA, Weyrich AS, Rondina MT. Human megakaryocytes possess intrinsic antiviral immunity through regulated induction of IFITM3. Blood. 2019;133(19):2013–26.
Kaplanski G, Porat R, Aiura K, Erban JK, Gelfand JA, Dinarello CA. Activated platelets induce endothelial secretion of interleukin-8 in vitro via an interleukin-1-mediated event. Blood. 1993;81(10):2492–5.
Rondina MT, Weyrich AS, Zimmerman GA. Platelets as cellular effectors of inflammation in vascular diseases. Circ Res. 2013;112(11):1506–19. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.300512.
Gjesdal K, Nordoy A, Wang H, Berntsen H, Mjos OD. Effects of fasting on plasma and platelet-free fatty acids and platelet function in healthy males. Thromb Haemost. 1976;36(2):325–33.
Traba J, Kwarteng-Siaw M, Okoli TC, Li J, Huffstutler RD, Bray A, Waclawiw MA, Han K, Pelletier M, Sauve AA, Siegel RM, Sack MN. Fasting and refeeding differentially regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human subjects. J Clin Invest. 2015;125(12):4592–600.
Traba J, Geiger SS, Kwarteng-Siaw M, Han K, Ra OH, Siegel RM, Gius D, Sack MN. Prolonged fasting suppresses mitochondrial NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation via SIRT3-mediated activation of superoxide dismutase 2. J Biol Chem. 2017;292(29):12153–64.
Jiang Z, Li Y, Ji X, Tang Y, Yu H, Ding L, Yu M, Cui Q, Zhang M, Ma Y, Li M. Protein profiling identified key chemokines that regulate the maintenance of human pluripotent stem cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14510.
Berenguer J, Fernandez-Rodríguez A, Jimenez-Sousa MA, Cosín J, Zarate P, Micheloud D, López JC, Miralles P, Catalán P, Resino S. High plasma CXCL10 levels are associated with HCV-genotype 1, and higher insulin resistance, fibrosis, and HIV viral load in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Cytokine. 2012;57:25–9.
Chan BD, Wong WY, Lee MM, Cho WC, Yee BK, Kwan YW, Tai WC. Exosomes in inflammation and inflammatory disease. Proteomics. 2019;19(8):e1800149.
Freeman DW, Noren Hooten N, Eitan E, Green J, Mode NA, Bodogai M, Zhang Y, Lehrmann E, Zonderman AB, Biragyn A, Egan J, Becker KG, Mattson MP, Ejiogu N, Evans MK. Altered extracellular vesicle concentration, cargo, and function in diabetes. Diabetes. 2018;67(11):2377–88.
Shehab A, Abdulle A, El Issa A, Al Suwaidi J, Nagelkerke N. Favorable changes in lipid profile: the effects of fasting after Ramadan. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47615.
Roky R, Houti I, Moussamih S, Qotbi S, Aadil N. Physiological and chronobiological changes during Ramadan intermittent fasting. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004;48:296–303.
Qasrawi SO, Pandi-Perumal SR, BaHammam AS. The effect of intermittent fasting during Ramadan on sleep, sleepiness, cognitive function, and circadian rhythm. Sleep Breath. 2017;21:577–86.
Ajabnoor GM, Bahijri S, Borai A, Abdulkhaliq AA, Al-Aama JY, Chrousos GP. Health impact of fasting in Saudi Arabia during Ramadan: association with disturbed circadian rhythm and metabolic and sleeping patterns. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96500.
Haghdoost AA, Poorranjbar M. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipid profile during Ramadan. Singap Med J. 2009;50:897–901.
Oman D. Public health nutrition, religion, and spirituality. In: Oman D, editor. Why religion and spirituality matter for public health. New York: Springer; 2018. p. 165–73.
Spielman LJ, Little JP, Klegeris A. Inflammation and insulin/IGF-1 resistance as the possible link between obesity and neurodegeneration. J Neuroimmunol. 2014;273:8–21.
Ünalacak M, Kara IH, Baltaci D, Erdem Ö, Bucaktepe PG. Effects of Ramadan fasting on biochemical and hematological parameters and cytokines in healthy and obese individuals. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011;9:157–61.
Wegman MP, Guo MH, Bennion DM, Shankar MN, Chrzanowski SM, Goldberg LA, Xu J, Williams TA, Lu X, Hsu SI, Anton SD. Practicality of intermittent fasting in humans and its effect on oxidative stress and genes related to aging and metabolism. Rejuvenation Res. 2015;18:162–72.
Norouzy A, Salehi M, Philippou E, Arabi H, Shiva F, Mehrnoosh S, Mohajeri SM, Mohajeri SR, Motaghedi Larijani A, Nematy M. Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body composition and nutritional intake: a prospective study. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013;26:97–104.
Nov O, Shapiro H, Ovadia H, Tarnovscki T, Dvir I, Shemesh E, Kovsan J, Shelef I, Carmi Y, Voronov E, Apte RN. Interleukin-1β regulates fat-liver crosstalk in obesity by auto-paracrine modulation of adipose tissue inflammation and expandability. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(1):e53626.
Wende AR, Young ME, Chatham J, Zhang J, Rajasekaran NS, Darley-Usmar VM. Redox biology and the interface between bioenergetics, autophagy and circadian control of metabolism. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;100:94–107.
Hanjani NA, Vafa M. Protein restriction, epigenetic diet, intermittent fasting as new approaches for preventing age-associated diseases. Int J Prev Med. 2018;9:58.
Ali Z, Abizari AR. Ramadan fasting alters food patterns, dietary diversity and body weight among Ghanaian adolescents. Nutr J. 2018;17:75.
Sadeghirad B, Motaghipisheh S, Kolahdooz F, Zahedi MJ, Haghdoost AA. Islamic fasting and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17:396–406.
Azizi F. Islamic fasting and health. Ann Nutr Metab. 2010;56:273–82.
Belkhadir J, El Ghomari H, Klöcker N, Mikou A, Nasciri M, Sabri M. Muslims with non-insulin dependent diabetes fasting during Ramadan: treatment with glibenclamide. BMJ. 1993;307:292–5.
Saltiel AR, Olefsky JM. Inflammatory mechanisms linking obesity and metabolic disease. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:1–4.
Hu FB. Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2002;13:3–9.