Rehm J, Mathers C, Popova S, Thavorncharoensap M, Teerawattananon Y, Patra J. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet. 2009;373:2223–33.
Di MA. Therapy of digestive disorders: a companion to sleisenger and Fordtran’s gastrointestinal and liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:1275–6.
Kirpich IA, Petrosino J, Ajami N, Feng W, Wang Y, Liu Y, Beier JI, Barve SS, Yin X, Wei X, et al. Saturated and unsaturated dietary fats differentially modulate ethanol-induced changes in Gut microbiome and metabolome in a mouse model of alcoholic liver disease. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:765–76.
Allampati S, Mullen KD. Long-term management of alcoholic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2016;20:551–62.
Altamirano J, Bataller R. Alcoholic liver disease: pathogenesis and new targets for therapy. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;8:491–501.
Szabo G. Gut-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2015;148:30–6.
Szabo G, Bala S. Alcoholic liver disease and the gut-liver axis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:1321–9.
M CCC, N LL, C MF, J LG, D A, C G, G C, S HP, C M, F SM, et al. Comparing the effects of acute alcohol consumption in germ-free and conventional mice: the role of the gut microbiota. BMC Microbiol. 2014;14:240.
Chen JR, Chen YL, Peng HC, Lu YA, Chuang HL, Chang HY, Wang HY, Su YJ, Yang SC. Fish Oil reduces hepatic injury by maintaining normal intestinal permeability and microbiota in chronic ethanol-Fed rats. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2016;2016:4694726.
Shapiro H, Tehilla M, Attal-Singer J, Bruck R, Luzzatti R, Singer P. The therapeutic potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Nutr. 2011;30:6–19.
Wang M, Zhang XJ, Feng K, He C, Li P, Hu YJ, Su H, Wan JB. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil prevents against alcoholic hepatic steatosis via ameliorating lipid homeostasis at adipose tissue-liver axis in mice. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26826.
Zhou Z, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Diao Y, Strappe P, Prenzler P, Ayton J, Blanchard C. Deep-fried oil consumption in rats impairs glycerolipid metabolism, gut histology and microbiota structure. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:86.
Godon JJ, Zumstein E, Dabert P, Habouzit F, Moletta R. Molecular microbial diversity of an anaerobic digestor as determined by small-subunit rDNA sequence analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997;63:2802–13.
Mutlu E, Keshavarzian A, Engen P, Forsyth CB, Sikaroodi M, Gillevet P. Intestinal dysbiosis: a possible mechanism of alcohol-induced endotoxemia and alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009;33:1836–46.
Gabbard SL, Lacy BE, Levine GM, Crowell MD. The impact of alcohol consumption and cholecystectomy on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Dig Dis Sci. 2014;59:638–44.
Bull-Otterson L, Feng W, Kirpich I, Wang Y, Qin X, Liu Y, Gobejishvili L, Joshi-Barve S, Ayvaz T, Petrosino J, et al. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment. PLoS One. 2013;8:e53028.
Chen P, Torralba M, Tan J, Embree M, Zengler K, Starkel P, van Pijkeren JP, DePew J, Loomba R, Ho SB, et al. Supplementation of saturated long-chain fatty acids maintains intestinal eubiosis and reduces ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Gastroenterology. 2015;148:203–14. e216.
Mutlu EA, Gillevet PM, Rangwala H, Sikaroodi M, Naqvi A, Engen PA, Kwasny M, Lau CK, Keshavarzian A. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302:G966–978.
Lieber CS. Hepatic, metabolic and toxic effects of ethanol: 1991 update. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1991;15:573–92.
Taylor CG, Noto AD, Stringer DM, Froese S, Malcolmson L. Dietary milled flaxseed and flaxseed oil improve N-3 fatty acid status and do not affect glycemic control in individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29:72–80.
Parlesak A, Schafer C, Schutz T, Bode JC, Bode C. Increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules and endotoxemia in patients with chronic alcohol abuse in different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease. J Hepatol. 2000;32:742–7.
Fukui H, Brauner B, Bode JC, Bode C. Plasma endotoxin concentrations in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease: reevaluation with an improved chromogenic assay. J Hepatol. 1991;12:162–9.
Thaiss CA, Zmora N, Levy M, Elinav E. The microbiome and innate immunity. Nature. 2016;535:65–74.
Gao B. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory cytokines in alcoholic liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;27 Suppl 2:89–93.
Neuman MG, Maor Y, Nanau RM, Melzer E, Mell H, Opris M, Cohen L, Malnick S. Alcoholic liver disease: role of cytokines. Biomolecules. 2015;5:2023–34.
Byun JS, Suh YG, Yi HS, Lee YS, Jeong WI. Activation of toll-like receptor 3 attenuates alcoholic liver injury by stimulating Kupffer cells and stellate cells to produce interleukin-10 in mice. J Hepatol. 2013;58:342–9.
de Waal MR, Abrams J, Bennett B, Figdor CG, de Vries JE. Interleukin 10(IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of IL-10 produced by monocytes. J Exp Med. 1991;174:1209–20.
Hawrylowicz CM, O’Garra A. Potential role of interleukin-10-secreting regulatory T cells in allergy and asthma. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5:271–83.
Chen RC, Xu LM, Du SJ, Huang SS, Wu H, Dong JJ, Huang JR, Wang XD, Feng WK, Chen YP. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding. Toxicol Lett. 2016;241:103–10.
Kasztelan-Szczerbinska B, Surdacka A, Celinski K, Rolinski J, Zwolak A, Miacz S, Szczerbinski M. Prognostic significance of the systemic inflammatory and immune balance in alcoholic liver disease with a focus on gender-related differences. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0128347.
Cresci GA. The gut microbiome: a new frontier for alcohol investigation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015;39:947–9.
Ferrere G, Wrzosek L, Cailleux F, Turpin W, Puchois V, Spatz M, Ciocan D, Rainteau D, Humbert L, Hugot C, et al. Fecal microbiota manipulation prevents dysbiosis and alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. J Hepatol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2016.11.008. In press.
Qin J, Li R, Raes J, Arumugam M, Burgdorf KS, Manichanh C, Nielsen T, Pons N, Levenez F, Yamada T, et al. A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature. 2010;464:59–65.
Neyrinck AM, Etxeberria U, Taminiau B, Daube G, Van Hul M, Everard A, Cani PD, Bindels LB, Delzenne NM. Rhubarb extract prevents hepatic inflammation induced by acute alcohol intake, an effect related to the modulation of the gut microbiota. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61:1500899.