World Health Organization. Depression 2018 [Available from: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/Depression. Accessed 28 Sept 2021.
Curran C, Knapp M, McDaid D, Tómasson K, Group M. Mental health and employment: an overview of patterns and policies across Western Europe. J Ment Health. 2007;16(2):195–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638230701279865.
de Macedo-Soares MB, Moreno RA, Rigonatti SP, Lafer B. Efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant bipolar disorder: a case series. J ECT. 2005;21(1):31–4. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.yct.0000148621.88104.f1.
Modabber-Nia M-J, Shodjai-Tehrani H, Moosavi S-R, Jahanbakhsh-Asli N, Fallahi M. The prevalence of depression among high school and preuniversity adolescents: Rasht, northern Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2007;10(2):141–6.
Depression W. Other common mental disorders: global health estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. p. 1–24.
Hasler G. Pathophysiology of depression: do we have any solid evidence of interest to clinicians? World Psychiatr. 2010;9(3):155–61. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2051-5545.2010.tb00298.x.
Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, et al. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Jama. 2003;289(23):3095–105. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.23.3095.
McKnight PE, Kashdan TB. The importance of functional impairment to mental health outcomes: a case for reassessing our goals in depression treatment research. Clin Psychol Rev. 2009;29(3):243–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.005.
Katon W. The impact of depression on workplace functioning and disability costs. Am J Manag Care. 2009;15(11 Suppl):S322–7.
Kennedy SH, Eisfeld BS, Cooke RG. Quality of life: an important dimension in assessing the treatment of depression? J Psychiatr Neurosci JPN. 2001;26(Suppl):S23.
Sadock B, Sadock V, Ruiz P. Summary of psychiatry: behavioral sciences clinical psychoiatry. 11th ed. Tehran: Arjomand publications; 2015.
Mullen S. Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Mental Health Clin. 2018;8(6):275–83. https://doi.org/10.9740/mhc.2018.11.275.
Kaplan BJ. Kaplan and Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry. Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie. 2016;58(1):347–86.
Frank E, Kupfer DJ, Perel JM, Cornes C, Jarrett DB, Mallinger AG, et al. Three-year outcomes for maintenance therapies in recurrent depression. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 1990;47(12):1093–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1990.01810240013002.
Gonzales LR, Lewinsohn PM, Clarke GN. Longitudinal follow-up of unipolar depressives: an investigation of predictors of relapse. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1985;53(4):461–9. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.4.461.
Hollon SD, DeRubeis RJ, Evans MD, Wiemer MJ, Garvey MJ, Grove WM, et al. Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression: singly and in combination. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 1992;49(10):774–81. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820100018004.
Keller MB, Lavori PW, Lewis CE, Klerman GL. Predictors of relapse in major depressive disorder. Jama. 1983;250(24):3299–304. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1983.03340240025024.
Maj M, Veltro F, Pirozzi R, Lobrace S, Magliano L. Pattern of recurrence of illness after recovery from an episode of major depression: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatr. 1992.
Roy-Byrne P, Post RM, Uhde TW, Porcu T, Davis D. The longitudinal course of recurrent affective illness: life chart data from research patients at the NIMH. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1985;71(s317):1–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1985.tb10510.x.
Burcusa SL, Iacono WG. Risk for recurrence in depression. Clin Psychol Rev. 2007;27(8):959–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.02.005.
Judd LL. The clinical course of unipolar major depressive disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 1997;54(11):989–91. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830230015002.
Balkrishnan R, Joish VN, Yang T, Jayawant SS, Mullins CD. The economic burden associated with SSRI treatment failure in a managed care population. J Med Econ. 2008;11(4):601–10. https://doi.org/10.3111/13696990802522339.
Fostick L, Silberman A, Beckman M, Spivak B, Amital D. The economic impact of depression: resistance or severity? Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;20(10):671–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.06.001.
Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Zeller PJ, Paulus M, Leon AC, Maser JD, et al. Psychosocial disability during the long-term course of unipolar major depressive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 2000;57(4):375–80. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.57.4.375.
Skodol AE, Grilo CM, Keyes KM, Geier T, Grant BF, Hasin DS. Relationship of personality disorders to the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. Am J Psychiatr. 2011;168(3):257–64. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10050695.
Kupfer DJ, Frank E, Wamhoff J. Mood disorders: Update on prevention of recurrence. In: Mundt C, Goldstein MJ, editors. Interpersonal factors in the origin and course of affective disorders. London, England: Gaskell/Royal College of Psychiatrists; 1996. pp. 289–302.
Perris C. The distinction between unipolar and bipolar mood disorders: a 25-year perspective. L'Encéphale: Revue de psychiatrie clinique biologique et thérapeutique. 1992;18(1):9–13.
Hasin DS, Sarvet AL, Meyers JL, Saha TD, Ruan WJ, Stohl M, et al. Epidemiology of adult DSM-5 major depressive disorder and its specifiers in the United States. JAMA Psychiatr. 2018;75(4):336–46. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4602.
Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Warden D, Ritz L, et al. Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR* D: implications for clinical practice. Am J Psychiatr. 2006;163(1):28–40. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.28.
Cheung A, Mayes T, Levitt A, Schaffer A, Michalak E, Kiss A, et al. Anxiety as a predictor of treatment outcome in children and adolescents with depression. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2010;20(3):211–6. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2010.0006.
Barkow K, Maier W, Üstün TB, Gänsicke M, Wittchen H-U, Heun R. Risk factors for depression at 12-month follow-up in adult primary health care patients with major depression: an international prospective study. J Affect Disord. 2003;76(1–3):157–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00081-2.
Weinberger MI, Sirey JA, Bruce ML, Heo M, Papademetriou E, Meyers BS. Predictors of major depression six months after admission for outpatient treatment. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59(10):1211–5. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2008.59.10.1211.
Alwan A, Saeed K. A new agenda for mental health in the eastern Mediterranean region. EMHJ East Mediterr Health J. 2015;21(7):459–60. https://doi.org/10.26719/2015.21.7.459.
Haghgoo A, Zoladl M, Afroughi S, Rahimian H, Mirzaee MS. Assessment of the Burden on Family Caregivers of Patients with Mental Disorders Hospitalized in Shahid Rajai Hospital in Yasuj, 2016. Assessment. 2017;5(2):39–44.
Halvorsen M, Wang CE, Eisemann M, Waterloo K. Dysfunctional attitudes and early maladaptive schemas as predictors of depression: a 9-year follow-up study. Cogn Ther Res. 2010;34(4):368–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9259-5.
Saragoussi D, Touya M, Haro JM, Jönsson B, Knapp M, Botrel B, et al. Factors associated with failure to achieve remission and with relapse after remission in patients with major depressive disorder in the PERFORM study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017;13:2151–65. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S136343.
Gilman SE, Kawachi I, Fitzmaurice GM, Buka SL. Socio-economic status, family disruption and residential stability in childhood: relation to onset, recurrence and remission of major depression. Psychol Med. 2003;33(8):1341–55. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291703008377.
Vuong QH. Likelihood ratio tests for model selection and non-nested hypotheses. Econometrica: J Econometric Soc. 1989;57(2):307–33. https://doi.org/10.2307/1912557.
Sharareh P, Leili T, Abbas M, Jalal P, Ali G. Determining correlates of the average number of cigarette smoking among college students using count regression models. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65813-4.
Wainwright N, Surtees PG. Childhood adversity, gender and depression over the life-course. J Affect Disord. 2002;72(1):33–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00420-7.
Amiri S. Unemployment associated with major depression disorder and depressive symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In: International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics; 2021 (just-accepted). p. 1–43.
McLeod JD, Kessler RC, Landis KR. Speed of recovery from major depressive episodes in a community sample of married men and women. J Abnorm Psychol. 1992;101(2):277–86. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.101.2.277.
Stegenga BT, Geerlings MI, Torres-González F, Xavier M, Švab I, Penninx BW, et al. Risk factors for onset of multiple or long major depressive episodes versus single and short episodes. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013;48(7):1067–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-012-0626-2.
Zamanian Z, Riaei S, Kaveh N, Khosravani A, Sayadi M, Moemenbellah-Fard MD. The prevalence of Depression and its associated factors among students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012. J Health Sci Surveill Syst. 2016;4(1):7–13.
Chevalier A, Feinstein L. The causal effect of education on depression, 2004; 2005.
Teraishi T, Hori H, Sasayama D, Matsuo J, Ogawa S, Ishida I, et al. Personality in remitted major depressive disorder with single and recurrent episodes assessed with the temperament and character inventory. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2015;69(1):3–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12218.
Pouretemad HR, Naghavi HR, Malekafzali H, Noorbala AA, Davidian H, Ghanizadeh A, et al. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran. Iran J Psychiatry. 2006;1(2):59–64.
Brown GW, Moran P. Clinical and psychosocial origins of chronic depressive episodes. Br J Psychiatr. 1994;165(4):447–56. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.165.4.447.
Brown GW, Moran P, Harris T, Hepworth C, Robinson R. Clinical and psychosocial origins of chronic depressive episodes: II: a patient enquiry. Br J Psychiatr. 1994;165(4):457–65. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.165.4.457.
Hynninen KMJ, Breitve MH, Wiborg AB, Pallesen S, Nordhus IH. Psychological characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review. J Psychosom Res. 2005;59(6):429–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.04.007.
Spijker J, de Graaf R, Bijl RV, Beekman AT, Ormel J, Nolen WA. Determinants of persistence of major depressive episodes in the general population. Results from the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study (NEMESIS). J Affect Disord. 2004;81(3):231–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2003.08.005.
Geerlings SW, Beekman AT, Deeg DJ, Van Tilburg W. Physical health and the onset and persistence of depression in older adults: an eight-wave prospective community-based study. Psychol Med. 2000;30(2):369–80. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291799001890.
Perlis RH, Nierenberg AA, Alpert JE, Pava J, Matthews JD, Buchin J, et al. Effects of adding cognitive therapy to fluoxetine dose increase on risk of relapse and residual depressive symptoms in continuation treatment of major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002;22(5):474–80. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004714-200210000-00006.
Rucci P, Frank E, Calugi S, Miniati M, Benvenuti A, Wallace M, et al. Incidence and predictors of relapse during continuation treatment of major depression with SSRI, interpersonal psychotherapy, or their combination. Depression and Anxiety. 2011;28(11):955–62. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20894.
Hardeveld F, Spijker J, De Graaf R, Hendriks SM, Licht CM, Nolen WA, et al. Recurrence of major depressive disorder across different treatment settings: results from the NESDA study. J Affect Disord. 2013;147(1–3):225–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.11.008.
Onaemo VN, Fawehinmi TO, D’Arcy C. Alcohol use disorder and the persistence/recurrence of major Depression. Can J Psychiatr. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743720923065.
Kendler KS, Neale MC, MacLean CJ, Heath AC, Eaves LJ, Kessler RC. Smoking and major depression: a causal analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 1993;50(1):36–43. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820130038007.