Stamp N. Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses. Q Rev Biol. 2003;78:23–55.
McKey D. Adaptive patterns in alkaloid physiology. Am Nat. 1974;108:305–20.
Barto EK, Cipollini D. Testing the optimal defense theory and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Oecologia. 2005;146:169–78.
Ohnmeiss TE, Baldwin IT. Optimal defense theory predicts the ontogeny of an induced nicotine defense. Ecology. 2000;81:1765–83.
Heath JJ, Kessler A, Woebbe E, Cipollini D, Stireman JO. Exploring plant defense theory in tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. New Phytol. 2014;202:1357–70.
Zangerl AR, Bazzaz FA. Theory and pattern in plant defense allocation. In: Fritz RS, Simms EL, editors. Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens: ecology, evolution, and genetics. 1992.
Ballhorn DJ, Godschalx AL, Smart SM, Kautz S, Schädler M. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness. Oecologia. 2014;176:811–24.
Simon J, Gleadow RM, Woodrow IE. Allocation of nitrogen to chemical defence and plant functional traits is constrained by soil N. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:1111–7.
Hahlbrock K, Conn EE. The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glycosides in higher plants. J Biol Chem. 1970;245:917–22.
Butler GW, Conn EE. Biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. J Biol Chem. 1964;239:1674–9.
Poulton JE. Cyanogenesis in plants. Plant Physiol. 1990;94:401–5.
Frehner M, Conn EE. The linamarin beta-glucosidase in Costa Rican wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is apoplastic. Plant Physiol. 1987;84:1296–300.
Vetter J. Plant cyanogenic glycosides. Toxicon. 2000;38:11–36.
Kakes P. Properties and functions of the cyanogenic system in higher plants. Euphytica. 1990;48:25–43.
Gleadow RM, Møller BL. Cyanogenic glycosides: synthesis, physiology, and phenotypic plasticity. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2014;65:155–85.
Godschalx AL, Schädler M, Trisel JA, Balkan MA, Ballhorn DJ. Ants are less attracted to the extrafloral nectar of plants with symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Ecology. 2015;96:348–54.
Ballhorn DJ, Heil M, Pietrowski A, Lieberei R. Quantitative effects of cyanogenesis on an adapted herbivore. J Chem Ecol. 2007;33:2195–208.
Ballhorn DJ, Lieberei R, Ganzhorn JU. Plant cyanogenesis of Phaseolus lunatus and its relevance for herbivore–plant interaction: the importance of quantitative data. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:1445–73.
Lieberei R, Biehl B, Giesemann A, Junqueira NT. Cyanogenesis inhibits active defense reactions in plants. Plant Physiol. 1989;90:33–6.
Ballhorn DJ, Pietrowski A, Lieberei R. Direct trade-off between cyanogenesis and resistance to a fungal pathogen in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). J Ecol. 2010;98:226–36.
Ballhorn DJ. Constraints of simultaneous resistance to a fungal pathogen and an insect herbivore in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:141–4.
Ballhorn DJ, Kautz S, Rakotoarivelo FP. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in Cathariostachys madagascariensis-the main food plant of bamboo lemurs in Southeastern Madagascar. Am J Primatol. 2009;71:305–15.
Goodger JQD, Ades PK, Woodrow IE. Cyanogenesis in Eucalyptus polyanthemos seedlings: heritability, ontogeny and effect of soil nitrogen. Tree Physiol. 2004;24:681–8.
Gleadow RM, Foley WJ, Woodrow IE. Enhanced CO2 alters the relationship between photosynthesis and defence in cyanogenic Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Plant Cell Environ. 1998;21:12–22.
Thamer S, Schädler M, Bonte D, Ballhorn DJ. Dual benefit from a belowground symbiosis: nitrogen fixing rhizobia promote growth and defense against a specialist herbivore in a cyanogenic plant. Plant Soil. 2011;341:209–19.
Gleadow RM, Woodrow IE. Temporal and spatial variation in cyanogenic glycosides in Eucalyptus cladocalyx. Tree Physiol. 2000;20:591–8.
Ganzhorn JU. Leaf chemistry and the biomass of folivorous primates in tropical forests. Test of a hypothesis. Oecologia. 1992;91:540–7.
Zangerl AR, Rutledge CE. The probability of attack and patterns of constitutive and induced defense: a test of optimal defense theory. Am Nat. 1996;147:599–608.
Ballhorn DJ, Kautz S, Heil M. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles. PLoS One. 2013;8:e55602.
Ballhorn DJ, Kautz S, Lieberei R. Comparing responses of generalist and specialist herbivores to various cyanogenic plant features. Entomol Exp Appl. 2010;134:245–59.
Cates RG, Rhoades DF. Patterns in the production of antiherbivore chemical defenses in plant communities. Biochem Syst Ecol. 1977;5:185–93.
Wise MJ, Cummins JJ, De Young C. Compensation for floral herbivory in Solanum carolinense: identifying mechanisms of tolerance. Evol Ecol. 2008;22:19–37.
De Moura RL, Foster KW. Effects of cultivar and flower removal treatments on the temporal distribution of reproductive structures in bean. Crop Sci. 1986;26:362–7.
Doust JL, Eaton GW. Demographic aspects of flower and fruit production in bean plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Am J Bot. 1982;69:1156–64.
Massad TJ, Trumbore SE, Ganbat G, Reichelt M, Unsicker S, Boeckler A, et al. An optimal defense strategy for phenolic glycoside production in Populus trichocarpa - isotope labelling demonstrates secondary metabolite production in growing leaves. New Phytol. 2014;203:607–619.
Radhika V, Kost C, Bartram S, Heil M, Boland W. Testing the optimal defence hypothesis for two indirect defences: extrafloral nectar and volatile organic compounds. Planta. 2008;228:449–57.
Alba C, Bowers MD, Hufbauer R. Combining optimal defense theory and the evolutionary dilemma model to refine predictions regarding plant invasion. Ecology. 2012;93:1912–21.
Kursar T, Coley P. Convergence in defense syndromes of young leaves in tropical rainforests. Biochem Syst Ecol. 2003;31:929–49.
Brown PD, Tokuhisa JG, Reichelt M, Gershenzon J. Variation of glucosinolate accumulation amoung different organs and development stages of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry. 1991;62:471–81.
Bixenmann RJ, Coley PD, Kursar TA. Developmental changes in direct and indirect defenses in the young leaves of the neotropical tree genus Inga (Fabaceae). Biotropica. 2013;45:175–84.
Ballhorn DJ, Schiwy S, Jensen M, Heil M. Quantitative variability of direct chemical defense in primary and secondary leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and consequences for a natural herbivore. J Chem Ecol. 2008;34:1298–301.
Agrawal AA, Fishbein M. Plant defense syndromes. Ecology. 2006;87:S132–49.
Ballhorn DJ, Godschalx AL, Kautz S. Co-variation of chemical and mechanical defenses in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). J Chem Ecol. 2013;39:413–7.
Turley NE, Godfrey RM, Johnson MJT. Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense against herbivores. New Phytol. 2013;197:359–61.
Wäckers FL, Bonifay C. How to be sweet? Extrafloral nectar allocation by Gossypium hirsutum fits optimal defense theory predictions. Ecology. 2004;85:1512–8.
Ballhorn DJ, Kautz S, Lion U, Heil M. Trade-offs between direct and indirect defences of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). J Ecol. 2008;96:971–80.
Young B, Wagner D, Doak P, Clausen T. Within-plant distribution of phenolic glycosides and extrafloral nectaries in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides; Salicaceae). Am J Bot. 2010;97:601–10.
Ballhorn DJ, Kay J, Kautz S. Quantitative effects of leaf area removal on indirect defense of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in nature. J Chem Ecol. 2014;40:294–6.
Eisner T, Eisner M, Hoebeke ER. When defense backfires: detrimental effect of a plant’s protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4410–4.
Peoples MB, Pate JS, Atkins CA, Bergersen FJ. Nitrogen nutrition and xylem sap composition of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv Virginia Bunch). Plant Physiol. 1986;82:946–51.
Tsikou D, Kalloniati C, Fotelli MN, Nikolopoulos D, Katinakis P, Udvardi MK, et al. Cessation of photosynthesis in Lotus japonicus leaves leads to reprogramming of nodule metabolism. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:1317–32.
Strauss SY, Whittall JB. Non-pollinator agents of selection on floral traits. Ecol Evol Flowers. 2006;120–139.
Mothershead K, Marquis RJ. Fitness impacts of herbivory through indirect effects on plant-pollinator interactions in Oenothera macrocarpa. Ecology. 2000;81:30–40.
Kessler A, Halitschke R. Testing the potential for conflicting selection on floral chemical traits by pollinators and herbivores: predictions and case study. Funct Ecol. 2009;23:901–12.
Strauss SY. Floral characters link herbivores, pollinators, and plant fitness. Ecology. 1997;78:1640–5.
Gori DF. Floral color change in Lupinus argenteus (Fabaceae): why should plants advertise the location of unrewarding flowers to pollinators? Evolution (N Y). 1989;43:870–81.
McCall AC, Irwin RE. Florivory: the intersection of pollination and herbivory. Ecol Lett. 2006;9:1351–65.
Penet L, Collin CL, Ashman TL. Florivory increases selfing: an experimental study in the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana. Plant Biol. 2009;11:38–45.
Ballhorn DJ, Heil M, Lieberei R. Phenotypic plasticity of cyanogenesis in lima bean Phaseolus lunatus-activity and activation of beta-glucosidase. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:261–75.
Bradford M. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976;72:248–54.
R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2013. URL http://www.R-project.org/.