During the drafting of the original article (Kirkpatrick and Zang 2011), neither author noticed that a citation was incorrect, with only part of the citation given in quotation marks, and the remainder appearing as if it were paraphrased.
The original, incorrect, citation: (Kirkpatrick and Zang 2011), p.39.
By the time a student reaches the age of 15, he or she has spent four or five hours a day, for over the course of nine years learning to write a minimum of 3,000 characters. Stephen Wong (2009) wrote in the Asia Times, "It's possible that no other country has as many exams as China." From school admissions and job recruitment to promotion in the civil service, exams are an inseparable part of Chinese life. Studies suggest there are currently existing 200 government-organized nationwide examinations and nearly 40 million people appear for them each year, perhaps more, if local-level tests are included in the list.
From age 6 to 15 students have to master around 3000 logograms (hanzi, Chinese characters), a formidable task. Stephen Wong (2009) wrote in the Asia Times, "It's possible that no other country has as many exams as China. From school admissions and job recruitment to promotion in the civil service, exams are an inseparable part of Chinese life". Studies suggest there are currently "200 government-organized nationwide examinations, and nearly 40 million people" appear for them each year, perhaps more, "if local-level tests are included on the list"(Wong, 2009).
Further, on the reference page the author, year and URL were correct, but the month and title of the article were incorrect.
(Kirkpatrick and Zang 2011), p.44.
Original reference: Wong, S. (2009), November 25. In China, an easy route to academic glory. Asia Times.
Correction: Wong, S. (2009), August 22. No stopping China's cheaters. Asia Times.
Kirkpatrick R, Zang Y: The negative influences exam-oriented education on Chinese high school students: backwash from classroom to child. Language Testing in Asia 2011, 1: 36–45.
Wong S: No stopping China's cheaters. Asia Times 2009. Retrieved from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/KH22Ad01.html
The online version of the original article can be found at 10.1186/2229-0443-1-3-36
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
To view a copy of this licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Kirkpatrick, R., Zang, Y. Erratum to: The negative influences of exam-oriented education on Chinese high school students: backwash from classroom to child. Language Testing in Asia 4, 2 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/2229-0443-4-2