Multicolor Layer-by-Layer films using weak polyelectrolyte assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles
In the present study, we show that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different shape, aggregation state and color (violet, green, orange) have been successfully incorporated into polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. In order to obtain colored thin films based on AgNPs is necessary to maintain the aggregation state of the nanoparticles, a non-trivial aspect in which this work is focused on. The use of Poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt) (PAA) as a protective agent of the AgNPs is the key element to preserve the aggregation state and makes possible the presence of similar aggregates (shape and size) within the LbLcolored films. This approach based on electrostatic interactions of the polymeric chains and the immobilization of AgNPs with different shape and size into the thin films opens up a new interesting perspective to fabricate multicolornanocomposites based on AgNPs.
KeywordsMulticolor films Layer-by-Layer assembly Silver nanoparticles
Poly(acrylic acid sodium salt)
Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance
Transmission Electron Microscopy.
The synthesis of metal nanoparticles (gold, silver, palladium, copper) and their further incorporation into thin films is of great interest for applications in antibacterial coatings[1, 2], catalysis[3, 4], chemical sensors[5, 6], drug delivery[7, 8], electronics, photochemistry or photonics[11, 12]. The wide variety of synthesis methodologies to obtain the metallic particles provide alternative ways to synthesize the nanoparticles controlling various parameters such as the shape, size, surface functionalization or interparticle distance which affect their final properties. A control of these parameters is a challenging goal, and a large number of reports have been published[13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. Among them, the synthesis routes based on the chemical reduction in organic solvents or in which polymers can act simultaneously as a stabilizer and reducer agent to obtain metal nanoparticles have been investigated[21, 23]. However, the use of organic media and the synthesis of polydisperse nanoparticles limit their use for some specific applications in where monodisperse nanoparticles are required[24, 25].
Alternative procedures for the synthesis of Au or AgNPs are based on the use of water soluble polymers with the aim of achieving size-controlled nanoparticles. Wang and co-workers have obtained AuNPs in aqueous solution in the 1–5 nm size range with the use of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMMA)[26, 27]. Keuker-Baumann and co-workers reported a study about the formation of AgNPs with a high control and a characteristic plasmon band at 410 nm is observed using dilute solutions of long-chain sodium polyacrylates (NaPA) by exposing the solutions to UV-radiation in where the coil size of the polymeric chains acts as a collector of silver cations (Ag+). Other researches have investigated the formation of AgNPs and intermediate clusters in polyacrylate aqueous solutions by chemical reduction of Ag + using a reducing agent, gamma radiation or ambient light[29, 30, 31, 32]. Very recently, our group has described the synthesis of multicolor silver nanoparticles with a high stability in time, using poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt) (PAA) as a protective agent, in where the AgNPs exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectra (colors) as a function of variable protective and reducing agents with a well-defined shape and size.
Once the metallic nanoparticles have been synthesized, a further assembly in the form of thin films is required to obtain the desired silver nanoparticle composites. However, this is not always possible because of the need of preserving the aggregation state of the nanoparticles. Several approaches are based on the incorporation of the nanoparticles into a previous polymeric matrix obtained by different thin film techniques, such as sol–gel deposition or electrospinning process[34, 35]. In all the cases, the presence of an intense absorption band at 410 nm is indicative of spherical AgNPs with a characteristic yellow coloration. In this work, layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly allows to manipulate and incorporate the nanoparticles into the thin films due to the use of PAA as a protective agent which maintains unaltered the aggregation state of the AgNPs. This technique is based on the alternating deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in water solution (polycations and polyanions) on substrates where the electrostatic interaction between these two components of different charge is the driving force for the multilayer assembly. Previous works are based on the in situ synthesis of AgNPs in the polyelectrolyte multilayers via counterion exchange and posterior reduction[37, 38, 39, 40, 41]. In these cases, this approach is based on the pH-dependent dissociation of weak acids such as PAA as a function of the pH, in where both ionized (carboxylate) and non-ionized (carboxylic) groups are obtained. The presence of the free ionic groups makes possible to bind metal ions via a simple aqueous ion exchange procedure and a posterior chemical reduction step with a reducing agent, leads to obtain the nanoparticles within the thin film. However, Su and co-workers have demonstrated the incorporation of AgNPs with the use of strong polyelectrolytes, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), without any further adjustment of the pH. Although the film thickness of the polymeric matrix can be perfectly controlled by the number of layers deposited onto the substrate, a better control over particles size and distribution in the films are not easy to achieve with the in situ chemical reduction and as a result, only yellow coloration is observed. Our hypothesis for obtaining the color is due to a greater degree control over particles (shape and size distribution) in the films with a real need of maintaining the aggregation state.
To overcome this situation, we propose a first stage of synthesis of multicolorAgNPs (violet, green and orange) in aqueous polymeric solution (PAA) with a well-defined shape and size. A second stage is based on the incorporation of these AgNPs into a polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a study about the color formation based on AgNPs is investigated in films preserving the original color of the solutions.
Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) (Mw 56,000), Poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt) 35 wt% solution in water (PAA) (Mw 15,000), silver nitrate (>99% titration) and boranedimethylamine complex (DMAB) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and used without any further purification.
Synthesis method of the PAA-capped AgNPs
Multicolor silver nanoparticles have been prepared by adding freshly variable DMAB concentration (0.033, 0.33 and 3.33 mM) to vigorously stirred solution which contained constant PAA (25 mM) and AgNO3 concentrations (3.33 mM). This yields a molar ratio between the protective and loading agent ([PAA]/[AgNO3] ratio of 7.5:1. The final molar ratios between the reducing and loading agents ([DMAB]/[AgNO3] ratio) were 1:100, 1:10 and 1:1. The reduction of silver cations (Ag+) and all subsequent experiments were performed at room conditions and stored at room temperature. More details of this procedure can be found in the literature.
Fabrication of the multilayer film
Aqueous solutions of PAH and PAA with a concentration of 25 mM with respect to the repetitive unit were prepared using ultrapure deionized water (18.2 MΩ · cm). The pH was adjusted to 7.5 by the addition of a few drops of NaOH or HCl. The LbL assembly was performed by sequentially exposing the glass slide (substrate) to cationic polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and anionic polyelectrolyte PAA loaded with the silver nanoparticles previously synthesized (PAA-Ag NPs) with an immersion time of 5 minutes. A rinsing step of 1 minute in deionized water was performed between the two polyelectrolytes baths and a drying step of 30 seconds was performed after each rinsing step. The combination of a cationic monolayer with an anionic monolayer is called bilayer. The LbL process was carried out using a 3-axis cartesian robot from Nadetech Innovations. More details of the LbL assembly can be found elsewhere[35, 36, 43]. No atmospheric oxidation of the LbL films with AgNPs was observed using this experimental process, showing the long-term stability of the resultant films.
UV-visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) was used to characterize the optical properties of the multicolor silver nanoparticles and the resultant coatings obtained by LbL assembly. Measurements were carried out with a Jasco V-630 spectrophotometer.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the morphology (shape and size) of the silver nanoparticles obtained in aqueous solution. This TEM analysis was carried out with a Carl Zeiss Libra 120. Samples for TEM were prepared by dropping and evaporating the solutions onto a collodion-coated copper grid.
Atomic force microscope (AFM) in tapping mode (Innova, Veeco Inc.) has been used in order to show the distribution of the Ag NPs, thickness and roughness of the films obtained by the LbL assembly.
Results and discussion
According to the results observed in Figures 1 and2, when DMAB concentration added in the reaction mixture is low, violet coloration ([DMAB]/[AgNO3] = 0.01) or green coloration ([DMAB]/[AgNO3] = 0.1) is observed with a typical long-wavelength absorption band (600–700 nm) and a new absorption band at 480 nm appears for green coloration, which corresponds to complexes of small positively charged metal clusters and polymer ligands of the polyacrylate anions (PAA)[44, 45, 46]. It has been also found that AgNPs with a specific shape and size (TEM micrographs), nanorods of different size (from 100 to 500 nm) are synthesized for violet coloration. Additionally, clusters with a hexagonal shape (from 0.5-1 μm) mixed with spherical particles of nanometricsize are found for green coloration. However, when DMAB concentration is increased ([DMAB]/[AgNO3] = 1), orange coloration with an intense absorption band at 440 nm is observed, which is indicative of a total reduction of the silver cations and the corresponding synthesis of spherical nanoparticles with variable size. These results corroborate that the excess of free Ag+cations immobilized into the polyelectrolyte chains of the PAA respect to the reducing agent, plays a key role in the synthesis process, yielding different nanoparticle size distributions and aggregation states. It is important to remark that changes in the plasmonic absorption bands (resultant color) basically depend on the relationship between the aggregation state of the nanoparticles (even in the cluster formation) and the final shape/size of the resultant nanoparticles. A control of all these parameters is the key to understand the color formation in the films.
From the results of Figure 4, it can be said that a successful deposition of orange colored films was obtained. A LSPR absorption peak centred at 440 nm grows as a function of the number of bilayers deposited onto glass slides via LbL assembly (10, 20, 30 and 40 bilayers, respectively). The intensity increase of the absorption band at 440 nm or the orange coloration of the films, is the result of an incorporation of spherical AgNPs in the multilayer assembly.
According to the results, an increase of the absorption peak from 10 bilayers to 40 bilayers at a specific wavelength position is observed. The location of this absorption band, which is higher in intensity when the thickness of the coating is increased, maintains the same position that initial synthesized violet silver nanoparticles (PAA-AgNPs) at 600 nm (see Figure 1). In view of these results, UV–vis spectra reveal identical absorption peaks for both LbL fabrication process and the synthesized PAA-AgNPs (violet solution), which it means that silver nanoparticles with a specific shape (mostly rods) have been successfully incorporated in the multilayer assembly.
Obviously, in all the cases of study, the thickness and the resultant color formation depends basically on surface charge of both ionized PAH/PAA polymeric chains, the number of bilayers deposited, the number of the AgNPs incorporated and the distribution of them with a specific shape during the fabrication process. In order to show the aspect of the thin films after LbL fabrication process, AFM images of 40 bilayers [PAH/PAA-AgNPs] at pH 7.5 reveal that the morphologies of the thin films were homogeneous, very slight porous surfaces with an average roughness (rms) of 12.9 nm (violet coloration), 16.7 nm (green coloration) and 18.6 nm (orange coloration). In all the cases, the polymeric chains of the weak polyelectrolytes (PAH and PAA) are predominant in the outer surface and the AgNPs are embedded inside the polymeric films. In order to show the presence of these AgNPs in the LbL assembly, a thermal treatment of the films was necessary with the idea of evaporating the polymeric chains (PAH and PAA, respectively) and so, the contribution of the AgNPs can be appreciated when the fabrication process is performed.
In this work, highly stable coloredAgNPs were synthesized using a water-based synthesis route using PAA as capping agent. The weak polyelectrolyte nature of the PAA and the excess of Ag + cations respect to the concentration of reducing agent (DMAB) make possible to achieve nanoparticles with different sizes, shapes and aggregation states. This yields different coloredAgNPs dispersions (violet, green and orange). Such AgNPs have been successfully incorporated into LbL thin films in where the adsorption process was carried out that the AgNPs and aggregates (clusters) within the film are maintained, and thus the coloration of the films is also kept. In order to obtain the proper coloration of the thin film, a study about the influence of the number of PAH/PAA-AgNPs bilayers added (10, 20, 30, 40 and 80, respectively), the position of the absorption bands (UV–vis spectra) and the pH value of the weak polyelectrolytes solutions have been performed. A pH value of 7.5 or higher value of the PAA-AgNPs solution is the key to preserve the aggregation state of the AgNPs without any further precipitation or loss of coloration. A better definition of the coloration in the films is observed when a higher number of bilayers (thickness) are added during the LbL assembly (mostly in green color) because of a better entrapment of both initial clusters and nanometric spherical nanoparticles. This is indicative of a higher number of AgNPs or aggregates of specific shape and size that are incorporated into the multilayer film. In addition, AFM images reveal a low roughness of the resultant colored films which drastically changes with a thermal treatment due a total evaporation of the polymeric chains (PAH and PAA), making possible to appreciate the number of AgNPs incorporated as a function of bilayers added. To our knowledge, this is the first time that colored PAA-AgNPs of different sizes and shapes are synthesized and incorporated later in LbL assemblies preserving the original color of the solutions.
This work was supported in part by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness CICYT FEDER TEC2010-17805 research grant. The authors express their gratitude to David García-Ros (Universidad de Navarra) for his help with the TEM images.
- 2.Malcher M, Volodkin D, Heurtault B, André P, Schaaf P, Möhwald H, Voegel J, Sokolowski A, Ball V, Boulmedais F, Frisch B: Embedded silver ions-containing liposomes in polyelectrolyte multilayers: cargos films for antibacterial agents. Langmuir 2008, 24: 10209–10215. 10.1021/la8014755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Aliev FG, Correa-Duarte MA, Mamedov A, Ostrander JW, Giersig M, Liz-Marzán LM, Kotov NA: Layer-by-layer assembly of core-shell magnetite nanoparticles: effect of silica coating on interparticle interactions and magnetic properties. Adv Mater 1999, 11: 1006–1010. 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199908)11:12<1006::AID-ADMA1006>3.0.CO;2-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Kiryukhin MV, Sergeev BM, Prusov AN, Sergeev VG: Photochemical reduction of silver cations in a polyelectrolyte matrix. Polym Sci Ser B 2000, 42: 158–162.Google Scholar
- 32.Kiryukhin MV, Sergeev BM, Prusov AN, Sergeev VG: Formation of nonspherical silver nanoparticles by the photochemical reduction of silver cations in the presence of a partially decarboxylated poly(acrylic acid). Polym Sci Ser B 2000, 42: 324–328.Google Scholar
- 41.Rivero PJ, Urrutia A, Goicoechea J, Matias IR, Arregui FJ: A Lossy Mode Resonance optical sensor using silver nanoparticles-loaded films for monitoring human breathing. Sens Actuators B 2012. In press In pressGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.