Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences

, Volume 87, Issue 4, pp 299–309 | Cite as

From Rio to Paris: Achievements, problems, and prospects in the struggle against climate change

  • A. A. AkaevEmail author
Science and Society


The newsbreak for writing this article was a kind of jubilee: 25 years ago, in 1992, a conference in Rio de Janeiro adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This event became the first in a series of follow-up conferences and documents aimed primarily at limiting carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere to counter global warming. The author is an active advocate of the concept of the anthropogenic impact on climate as a leading factor in climate change. He stresses the positive potential of international agreements in this field and a new energy-environmental paradigm, which implies the development of low-carbon industry and transition to renewable energy sources and the “green” economy.


global warming UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) limit on the rise in surface temperature emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere decarbonization of the economy and energy industry development trend of the low-carbon energy industry renewable energy sources (RESs) new energy consumption paradigm economic growth Paris Climate Agreement 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1. Scholar
  2. 2. Scholar
  3. 3. Scholar
  4. 4.
    OECD/IEA, 2015: Energy and Climate Change. pdf; Scholar
  5. 5.
    OECD/IEA, 2015: World Energy Outlook 2015.; Scholar
  6. 6.
    OECD/IEA, 2015: Energy Technology Perspectives 2015. pdf; Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Rifkin, The Third Industrial Revolution; How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World (Palgrave MacMillan, London, 2011).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    http:/// Scholar
  9. 9. Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Rahmstorf and H. J. Schellnhuber, Der Klimavandel: Diagnose, Prognose, Therapie (C.H. Beck, München, 2007).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. M. Tarko, Anthropogenic Changes in Global Biospheric Processes (Fizmatlit, Moscow, 2005) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. V. Klimenko, A. V. Klimenko, T. N. Andreichenko, et al., Energy, Nature, and Climate (MEI, Moscow, 1997) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    US National Centers for Environmental Information: Climate at a Glance. Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. I. Budyko, Climate Changes (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1974) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. I. Budyko, Climate in the Past and Future (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1980) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  16. 16. Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. A. Isaev, Ecological Climatology (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 2003) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. E. Schlesinger, “A review of climate models and their simulation of CO2-induced warming,” Inter. J. Environ. Stud. 20, 103–114 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. H. Schneider, “Cloudiness as a global climatic feedback mechanism: The effects on the radiation balance and surface temperature of variations in cloudiness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29 (8), 1413–1422 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Manabe, R. T. Wetherald, “The effect of doubling the CO2 concentration on the climate of a general circulation model,” J. Atm. Sci. 32 (1), 3–15 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    TREND’s 93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, Ed. by T. A. Boden, D. P. Kaiser, R. J. Sepanski, and F. W. Stoss (Carbon Dioxide Informational Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, 1994).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. D. Jones, D. E. Parker, T. J. Osborn, and K. R. Briffa, “Global temperature anomalies in 1856–1999,” in TREND’s 93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change (Carbon Dioxide Informational Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, 1994).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    IPCC: Climate Change 2001 (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2001).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Report of the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development. Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 June, 1992. Cited May 23, 2017.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    IPCC: Climate Change 2007 (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2007).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rat der Europäischen Union. Pressemitteilung zur 1939. Ratssitzung Umwelt vom 25.6.1996, No. 8518/96 (1996).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Energy Technology Perspectives 2010–Scenarios & Strategies to 2050 (IEA, Paris, 2010).Google Scholar
  28. 28. Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. R. Brown, World on the Edge: How to Prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse (W.W. Norton, New York, 2011).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations