Anstead, Nick. 2017. Data-Driven Campaigning in the 2015 United Kingdom General Election. The International Journal of Press/politics 22(3): 294–313. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161217706163.
Anstead, Nick, João Carlos Magalhães, Richard Stupart, and Damian Tambini. 2018. Political Advertising on Facebook: The Case of the 2017 United Kingdom General Election.
Arun, R., V. Suresh, C. E. Veni Madhavan, and M. N. Narasimha Murthy. 2010. “On Finding the Natural Number of Topics with Latent Dirichlet Allocation: Some Observations.” In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, eds. Mohammed J. Zaki, Jeffrey Xu Yu, B. Ravindran, and Vikram Pudi, 391–402. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin: Springer.
Barnard, L., and D. Kreiss. 2013. A research agenda for online advertising: Surveying campaign practices, 2000–2012. International Journal of Communication 7: 21.
Barocas, Solon. 2012. “The Price of Precision: Voter Microtargeting and Its Potential Harms to the Democratic Process.” In , 31. ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/2389661.2389671.
Bennett, Colin J. 2018. Voter Databases, Micro-Targeting, and Data Protection Law: Can Political Parties Campaign in Europe as They Do in North America? International Data Privacy Law 6(4): 15.
Benoit, Kenneth, Kohei Watanabe, Haiyan Wang, Paul Nulty, Adam Obeng, Stefan Müller, and Akitaka Matsuo. 2018. Quanteda: An R Package for the Quantitative Analysis of Textual Data. Journal of Open Source Software 3(30): 774.
Boerman, Sophie C., Sanne Kruikemeier, Frederik J. Zuiderveen, and Borgesius. 2017. Online Behavioral Advertising: A Literature Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Advertising 46(3): 363–376. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2017.1339368.
Borgesius, Frederik J., Judith Möller. Zuiderveen, Sanne Kruikemeier, Ronan Ó Fathaigh, Kristina Irion, Tom Dobber, and Balazs Bodo. 2018. Online Political Microtargeting: Promises and Threats for Democracy. Utrecht Law Review 14(1): 15.
Callander, S., and C.H. Wilson. 2008. Context-Dependent Voting and Political Ambiguity. Journal of Public Economics 92(3–4): 565–581.
Cao, Juan, Tian Xia, Jintao Li, Yongdong Zhang, and Sheng Tang. 2009. A Density-Based Method for Adaptive LDA Model Selection. Neurocomputing, Advances in Machine Learning and Computational Intelligence 72(7): 1775–1781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2008.06.011.
Cogburn, Derrick L., and Fatima K. Espinoza-Vasquez. 2011. From Networked Nominee to Networked Nation: Examining the Impact of Web 2.0 and Social Media on Political Participation and Civic Engagement in the 2008 Obama Campaign. Journal of Political Marketing 10(1–2): 189–213.
de Vries, Erik, Martijn Schoonvelde, and Gijs Schumacher. 2018. No Longer Lost in Translation: Evidence That Google Translate Works for Comparative Bag-of-Words Text Applications. Political Analysis 26(4): 417–430. https://doi.org/10.1017/pan.2018.26.
Deveaud, Romain, Eric SanJuan, and Patrice Bellot. 2014. Accurate and Effective Latent Concept Modeling for Ad Hoc Information Retrieval. Document Numérique 17(1): 61–84. https://doi.org/10.3166/dn.17.1.61-84.
Dowling, Conor M., and Amber Wichowsky. 2015. Attacks without Consequence? Candidates, Parties, Groups, and the Changing Face of Negative Advertising. American Journal of Political Science 59(1): 19–36.
Endres, Kyle. 2016. The Accuracy of Microtargeted Policy Positions. PS: Political Science & Politics 49(04): 771–774. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049096516001645.
Endres, Kyle, and Kristin J. Kelly. 2018. Does Microtargeting Matter? Campaign Contact Strategies and Young Voters. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 28(1): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2017.1378222.
Franz, Michael M., Erika Franklin Fowler, Travis Ridout, and Meredith Yiran Wang. 2020. The Issue Focus of Online and Television Advertising in the 2016 Presidential Campaign. American Politics Research 48(1): 175–196.
Gorton, William A. 2016. Manipulating Citizens: How Political Campaigns’ Use of Behavioral Social Science Harms Democracy. New Political Science 38(1): 61–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/07393148.2015.1125119.
Griffiths, Thomas L., and Mark Steyvers. 2004. Finding Scientific Topics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(suppl 1): 5228–5235. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0307752101.
Hansen, Kasper M., and Rasmus Tue Pedersen. 2008. Negative Campaigning in a Multiparty System. Scandinavian Political Studies 31(4): 408–427. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2008.00213.x.
Hersh, Eitan D. 2015. Hacking the Electorate: How Campaigns Perceive Voters. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Hersh, Eitan D., and Brian F. Schaffner. 2013. Targeted Campaign Appeals and the Value of Ambiguity. The Journal of Politics 75(2): 520–534. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022381613000182.
Hillygus, D. Sunshine, and J. Quin Monson. 2009. “The Ground Campaign: The Strategy and Influence of Direct Communications in the 2004 Presidential Election.” Harvard University and Brigham Young University. Working Paper.
Hillygus, D. Sunshine., and Todd G. Shields. 2014. The Persuadable Voter: Wedge Issues in Presidential Campaigns. Princeton University Press.
Issenberg, Sasha. 2012. The Victory Lab: The Secret Science of Winning Campaigns. Broadway Books .
Johnson, T.J., and D.D. Perlmutter. 2010. Introduction: The Facebook election. Mass Communication and Society 13(5): 554–559.
Kim, Y. M., J. Hsu, D. Neiman, C. Kou, L. Bankston, S. Y. Kim,
R. Heinrich, R. Baragwanath, and G. Raskutti. 2018. The stealth
media? Groups and targets behind divisive issue campaigns on facebook. Political
Communication, July: 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2018.1476425
Krupnikov, Y., and J.B. Ryan. 2017. Choice vs. Action: Candidate Ambiguity and Voter Decision Making. Quarterly Journal of Political Science 12(4): 479–505.
Kruschinski, Simon, and André Haller. 2017. Restrictions on Data-Driven Political Micro-Targeting in Germany. Internet Policy Review 6(4). https://policyreview.info/articles/analysis/restrictions-data-driven-political-micro-targeting-germany.
Lilleker, Darren G., Karolina Koc-Michalska, Ralph Negrine, Rachel Gibson, Thierry Vedel, and Sylvie Strudel. 2017. Social Media Campaigning in Europe: Mapping the Terrain. Journal of Information Technology & Politics 14(4): 293–298. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2017.1397239.
Lowe, Will, Kenneth Benoit, Slava Mikhaylov, and Michael Laver. 2011. Scaling Policy Preferences from Coded Political Texts. Legislative Studies Quarterly 36(1): 123–155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-9162.2010.00006.x.
Magin, Melanie, Nicole Podschuweit, Jörg. Haßler, and Uta Russmann. 2017. Campaigning in the Fourth Age of Political Communication. A Multi-Method Study on the Use of Facebook by German and Austrian Parties in the 2013 National Election Campaigns. Information, Communication & Society 20(11): 1698–1719. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1254269.
Momoc, A. 2011. Online negative campaign in the 2004 Romanian presidential elections. Styles of Communication 2(1): 89–99.
Murray, Gregg R., and Anthony Scime. 2010. Microtargeting and Electorate Segmentation: Data Mining the American National Election Studies. Journal of Political Marketing 9(3): 143–166. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377857.2010.497732.
Nickerson, David W., and Todd Rogers. 2014. Political Campaigns and Big Data. Journal of Economic Perspectives 28(2): 51–74. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.28.2.51.
Nikita, M. and Nikita, M.M., 2016. Package ‘ldatuning’. Retrieved from https://cran.rproject.org/web/packages/ldatuning/ldatuning.pdf
Norris, Pippa. 2000. A Virtuous Circle: Political Communications in Postindustrial Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609343.
Plasser, Fritz, and Gunda Plasser. 2002. Global Political Campaigning: A Worldwide Analysis of Campaign Professionals and Their Practices. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Proksch, Sven-Oliver., Will Lowe, Jens Wäckerle, and Stuart Soroka. 2019. Multilingual Sentiment Analysis: A New Approach to Measuring Conflict in Legislative Speeches. Legislative Studies Quarterly 44(1): 97–131. https://doi.org/10.1111/lsq.12218.
Roberts, Chris. 2013. A Functional Analysis Comparison of Web-Only Advertisements and Traditional Television Advertisements from the 2004 and 2008 Presidential Campaigns. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699012468741.
Rubinstein, Ira S. 2014. Voter Privacy in the Age of Big Data. Wis. L. Rev., 861.
Schipper, Burkhard C., and Hee Woo. 2017. “Political Awareness, Microtargeting of Voters, and Negative Electoral Campaigning.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2039122. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2039122.
Sides, John, Daron Shaw, Matt Grossmann, and Keena Lipsitz. 2013. Campaigns & Elections: Rules, Reality, Strategy, Choice : 2012 Election Update. W.W: Norton.
Smit, Edith G., Guda Van Noort, and Hilde A.M.. Voorveld. 2014. Understanding Online Behavioural Advertising: User Knowledge, Privacy Concerns and Online Coping Behaviour in Europe. Computers in Human Behavior 32(March): 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.11.008.
Somer-Topcu, Z. 2015. Everything to Everyone: The Electoral Consequences of the Broad-Appeal Strategy in Europe. American Journal of Political Science 59(4): 841–854.
Strömbäck, Jesper, and Spiro Kiousis. 2014. “6. Strategic Political Communication in Election Campaigns.” In Political Communication, ed. by Carsten Reinemann. Berlin, Boston: DE GRUYTER. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238174.109.
Tomz, M., and R.P. Van Houweling. 2009. The electoral implications of candidate ambiguity. American Political Science Review 103: 83–98.
Tufekci, Zeynep. 2014. Engineering the Public: Big Data, Surveillance and Computational Politics. First Monday 19(7).
Utych, Stephen M. 2018. Negative Affective Language in Politics. American Politics Research 46(1): 77–102. https://doi.org/10.1177/1532673X17693830.
Ur, Blase, Pedro Giovanni Leon, Lorrie Faith Cranor, Richard Shay, and Yang Wang. 2012. “Smart, Useful, Scary, Creepy: Perceptions of Online Behavioral Advertising.” In 1. ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/2335356.2335362.
Walter, Annemarie S. 2014. Choosing the Enemy: Attack Behaviour in a Multiparty System. Party Politics 20(3): 311–323.
Young, Lori, and Stuart Soroka. 2012a. Affective News: The Automated Coding of Sentiment in Political Texts. Political Communication 29(2): 205–231.
Young, Lori, and Stuart Soroka. 2012b. Lexicoder Sentiment Dictionary. Montreal, Canada: McGill University.