Advertisement

Social Theory & Health

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 250–272 | Cite as

An Ideal-Typical Development of Chiropractic, 1895–1961: Pursuing Professional Ends Through Entrepreneurial Means

  • Yvonne Villanueva-Russell
Article

Abstract

An ideal type distinction between professional and entrepreneurial orientations is presented, using the founding Palmer family and their Palmer School of Chiropractic to illustrate how ‘entrepreneurial’ means were used to pursue ‘professional’ ends. Although chiropractic desired the professional goals of autonomy, authority, social distinction, trust and service, it was unable and unwilling to pursue this by emulating the attributes and rewards set by orthodox medicine. Professional (and therefore medicalized) means such as social closure and licensure were eschewed in favor of antipodal entrepreneurial strategies such as status congruence and populist generalism. Chiropractic's proud, maverick pursuit of entrepreneurialism at times represented a more righteous commitment to the ideals and ends of professionalism than was actually displayed by orthodox medicine. For its first 60 years, chiropractic established itself as a separate and distinct occupation that not only refashioned what it meant to be professional, but demonstrated the innovative use of existing resources and the acumen of its founders.

Keywords

alternative medicine chiropractic professionalization entrepreneurialism 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank Andrew C. Twaddle for his input and support on this research.

References

  1. Abbott A (1988). The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 435pp.Google Scholar
  2. Aldrich F (1917). Little journey in the heart of America. Kansas City Journal 29 (April): 15.Google Scholar
  3. Barnes L (2003). The acupuncture wars. The professionalization of American acupuncture: a view from Massachusetts. Medical Anthropology 22: 261–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beidemann R (1995). In the Making of a Profession: The National College of Chiropractic 1906–1981. Lombard, IL: National College of Chiropractic: Lombard, IL, 290pp.Google Scholar
  5. Bondi L (2004). A double-edged sword? The Professionalization of Counselling in the United Kingdom. Health and Place 10: 319–328.Google Scholar
  6. Brindle M, Goodrick E (2001). Revisiting maverick medical sects: the role of identity in comparing homeopaths and chiropractors. Journal of Social History 34: 569–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bürger T (1987). Max Weber's Theory of Concept Formation, expanded edition Duke University Press: Durham, NC, 231pp.Google Scholar
  8. Carr-Saunders AM, Wilson PA (1933). The Professions. Frank Cass: Oxford, 536pp.Google Scholar
  9. Chimes M (1988). The ‘Palmergram’ and BJ's goodwill ambassadors, a personal memoir. Chiropractic History 18: 15–16.Google Scholar
  10. Crisp K (1984). Chiropractic lyceums: the colorful origins of continuing education in the profession. Chiropractic History 4: 17–22.Google Scholar
  11. Culver C (1945). A study in chiropractic education. The National Chiropractic Journal 15: 25–28.Google Scholar
  12. Dye AA (1939). The Evolution of Chiropractic: Its Discovery and Development. Privately published: Philadelphia, PA, 343pp.Google Scholar
  13. Firman G, Goldstein MS (1975). The future of chiropractic: a psychosocial view. The New England Journal of Medicine 293: 639–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Freidson E (1970a). Profession of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. Dodd, Mead and Co.: New York, 409pp.Google Scholar
  15. Freidson E (1970b). Professional Dominance: The Social Structure of Medical Care. Atherton: New York, 242pp.Google Scholar
  16. Freidson E (2001). Professionalism: The Third Logic. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 250pp.Google Scholar
  17. Get off the hose (n.d.) Advertising template. Palmer College Archives, Palmer College of Chiropractic: Davenport, IA.Google Scholar
  18. Gevitz N (1988). ‘A coarse sieve’: basic science boards and medical licensure in the United States. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 43: 36–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gibbons R (1981). Physician–chiropractors: medical presence in the evolution of chiropractic. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 55: 233–245.Google Scholar
  20. Gibbons R (1985). Chiropractic's Abraham Flexner: the lonely journey of John J. Nugent, 1935–1963. Chiropractic History 5: 44–51.Google Scholar
  21. Gielow V (1981). Old Dad Chiro: A Biography of DD Palmer, Founder of Chiropractic. Bawden Bros: Davenport, IA, 142pp.Google Scholar
  22. Gilmore P (1960). What price chiropractic? PhD thesis, Palmer School of Chiropractic, Davenport, IA.Google Scholar
  23. Goode W (1957). The profession: reports and opinion. American Sociological Review 25: 902–914.Google Scholar
  24. Greenwood E (1957). Attributes of a profession. Social Work 2: 45–55.Google Scholar
  25. Gromala T (1984). Broadsides, epigrams and testimonials. Chiropractic History 4: 41–45.Google Scholar
  26. Hughes E (1959). Sociological Eye: Selected Essays. Aldine: Chicago, 584pp.Google Scholar
  27. Johnson LA, Johnson CW (1928). How to Build and Maintain a Chiropractic Practice. Privately published: Denver, CO, 147pp.Google Scholar
  28. Keating JC (1997). BJ of Davenport: The Early Years of Chiropractic. Association for the History of Chiropractic Press: Davenport, IA, 313pp.Google Scholar
  29. Larson MS (1977). The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis. University of California Press: Berkeley, 309pp.Google Scholar
  30. Lerner C (1952) The Lerner report: a history of the early years of chiropractic, unpublished manuscript. Palmer College of Chiropractic Archives, Davenport, IA, 139pp.Google Scholar
  31. Marlow RS (1937). RS Marlow System of Conducting a Chiropractic Office. Privately published: San Antonio, TX, 176pp.Google Scholar
  32. Metz M (1965). Fifty Years of Chiropractic Recognized in Kansas. Sadinger-Wilson: Abilene, KA, 139pp.Google Scholar
  33. Moore JS (1993). Chiropractic in America: The History of a Medical Alternative. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD, 227pp.Google Scholar
  34. Morrell JB (1990). Professionalisation. In: Olby RC, Cantor GN, Christie JRR, Hodge MJS (eds). Companion to the History of Modern Science. Routledge: London, 1081pp.Google Scholar
  35. Night School (1908) Advertisement in The Fountain Head News, 4: 40.Google Scholar
  36. Oakes G (1990). Soul of a Salesman: The Moral Ethos of Personal Sales. Humanities Press: Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 113pp.Google Scholar
  37. 100 Tuition Includes Man and Wife (1908) Advertisement in The Chiropractor, 4: 29.Google Scholar
  38. Palmer BJ (1903). Chiropractic Proofs. Pamphlet. Palmer School of Chiropractic: Davenport, IA, 24pp.Google Scholar
  39. Palmer BJ (1918). What is spizzerenctum? Fountain Head News 12 October, p.8.Google Scholar
  40. Palmer BJ (1950). Up From Below the Bottom. WB Conkey Company: Hammond, IN, 865pp.Google Scholar
  41. Palmer BJ (1951). Conflicts Clarify. WB Conkey Company: Hammond, IN, 747pp.Google Scholar
  42. Palmer BJ (1958). Shall Chiropractic Survive?. Palmer School of Chiropractic: Davenport, IA, 77pp.Google Scholar
  43. Parsons T (1939). The professions and social structure. Social Forces 17: 457–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Parsons T (1951). The Social System. Free Press: New York, 575pp.Google Scholar
  45. Parsons T (1954). Essays in Sociological Theory, revised edition. Free Press: New York, 459pp.Google Scholar
  46. Quigley WH (1989). Last days of BJ palmer: revolutionary confronts reality. Chiropractic History 9: 11–19.Google Scholar
  47. Rehm W (1986). Legally defensible: chiropractic in the courtroom and after, 1907. Chiropractic History 6: 51–55.Google Scholar
  48. Relman A (1980). The new medical–industrial complex. New England Journal of Medicine 303: 963–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosenberg C (1987). The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System. Basic Books: New York, 437pp.Google Scholar
  50. Saks M (2003). Orthodox and Alternative Medicine: Politics, Professionalization and Health Care. Continuum: New York, 194pp.Google Scholar
  51. Schumpeter J (1961). The Theory of Economic Development. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 255pp.Google Scholar
  52. So you have a common cold? (n.d.). Educational Tract. Palmer College Archives: Davenport, IA.Google Scholar
  53. Starr P (1982). The Social Transformation of American Medicine. Basic Books: New York, 514pp.Google Scholar
  54. Turner C (1931). The Rise of Chiropractic. Powell Publishing: Los Angeles, 386pp.Google Scholar
  55. Twaddle A, Gill D (1978). The concept of alienation. Sociological Spectrum 23: 41–60.Google Scholar
  56. Vedder H (1924). Chiropractic Advertising. Palmer School of Chiropractic: Davenport, IA, 244pp.Google Scholar
  57. Villanueva-Russell Y (2006). Early advertising and practice building in chiropractic 1920–1950. Chiropractic History 26: 35–47.Google Scholar
  58. Wardwell W (1992). Chiropractic: History and Evolution of A New Profession. Mosby Press: St. Louis, MO, 358pp.Google Scholar
  59. Wilensky H (1964). The professionalization of everyone? American Journal of Sociology 70: 137–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Without money and without price (1908). Advertisement. The Chiropractor 5: 82.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan Ltd 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne Villanueva-Russell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyTexas A&M University-CommerceCommerceUSA

Personalised recommendations