This study was designed to examine the portrayal of women in advertisements in a general interest magazine (i.e., Time) and a women's fashion magazine (i.e., Vogue) over the last 50 years. The coding scheme used for this analysis was based on the one developed by sociologist Erving Goffman in the 1970s, which focuses primarily on the subtle and underlying clues in the picture content of advertisements that contain messages in terms of (stereotypical) gender roles. The results of this study show that, overall, advertisements in Vogue, a magazine geared toward a female audience,depict women more stereotypically than do those in Time, a magazine with the general public as a target audience. In addition, only a slight decrease in the stereotypical depiction of women was found over time, despite the influence of the Women's Movement.
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Lindner, K. Images of Women in General Interest and Fashion Magazine Advertisements from 1955 to 2002. Sex Roles 51, 409–421 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SERS.0000049230.86869.4d
- gender roles
- gender stereotypes
- content analysis