Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 389–405 | Cite as

A Short Measure of Transformational Leadership

  • Sally A. Carless
  • Alexander J. Wearing
  • Leon Mann


This study reports the development of a short measure of transformational leadership: the Global Transformational Leadership scale (GTL). The study sample was 1,440 subordinates who assessed the leader behaviour of 695 branch managers in a large Australian financial organisation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the GTL measured a single construct of leadership and had satisfactory reliability. Evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity is presented. We conclude that the GTL has a number of potential uses as an assessment and selection tool and in leadership research.


Social Psychology Confirmatory Factor Analysis Social Issue Discriminant Validity Financial Organisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, M. J., & Yen, W. M. (1979). Introduction to measurement theory. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Atwater, L., Penn, R., & Rucker, L. (1991). Personal qualities of charismatic leaders. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 12, 7-10.Google Scholar
  3. Atwater, L., Roush, P., & Fischthal, A. (1995). The influence of upward feedback on self-and follower ratings of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48, 35-59.Google Scholar
  4. Avolio, B., Bass, B., & Jung, D. I. (1995). MLQ Multifactor leadership questionnaire: Technical report. Palo Alto, CA: Mind garden.Google Scholar
  5. Avolio, B., & Howell, J. M. (1992). The impact of leadership behavior and leader-follower personality match on satisfaction and unit performance. In K. E. Clark, M. B. Clark, & D. P. Campbell (Eds.), Impact of leadership (pp. 225-236). Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.Google Scholar
  6. Bagozzi, R. P., & Heatherton, T. F. (1994). A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to state self-esteem. Structural Equation Modelling, 1, 35-67.Google Scholar
  7. Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bass, B. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18, 19-31.Google Scholar
  9. Bass, B. (1992). Assessing the charismatic leader. In M. Syrett & C. Hogg, (Eds.), Frontiers of leadership (pp. 414-418). Blackwell: Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  10. Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  11. Bernardin, H., Dahmus, S. A., & Redmon, G. (1993). Attitudes of first-line supervisors toward subordinate appraisals. Human Resource Management, 32, 315-324.Google Scholar
  12. Bollen, K., & Long, J. S. (1992). Tests for structural equation models. Sociological Methods and Research, 21, 123-131.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternate ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma and leadership in organisations. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  15. Carless, S. A. (1995). Transformational leadership and Australian bank managers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  16. Cohen, R. J., Swerdlik, M. E., & Smith, D. K. (1992). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement (2nd ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  17. Conger, J., & Kanungo, R. (1994). Charismatic leadership in organizations: Perceived behavioural attributes and their measurement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 439-452.Google Scholar
  18. Conger, J., & Kanungo, R. (1988a). Behavioural dimensions of charismatic leadership. In J. Conger, R. Kanungo, & Associates. Charismatic leadership: The elusive factor in organisational effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  19. Conger, J., & Kanungo, R. (1988b). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13, 471-482.Google Scholar
  20. Coulson-Thomas, C., & Coe, T. (1991). The flat organization: Philosophy and practice. Corby: BIM.Google Scholar
  21. Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  22. Cudeck, R. (1989). Analysis of correlation matrices using covariance structure models. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 317-327.Google Scholar
  23. Cuttance, P. (1987). Issues and problems in the application of structural equation models. In P. Cuttance, & R. Ecob (Eds.), Structural modelling by example: Applications in educational, sociological, and behavioral research (pp. 241-279). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Cuttance, P., & Ecob, P. (1987). Introduction. In P. Cuttance, & R. Ecob (Eds.), Structural modelling by example: Applications in educational, sociological, and behavioral research (pp. 1-8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39-50.Google Scholar
  26. Gerbing, D., & Anderson, J. (1992). Monte Carlo evaluations of goodness of fit indices for structural equation models. Sociological Methods and Research, 21, 132-160.Google Scholar
  27. Gerbing, D., & Hamilton, J. G. (1996). Viability of exploratory factor analysis as a precursor to confirmatory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modelling, 3, 62-72.Google Scholar
  28. Gome, A. (1994, 16 May). Breaking down the macho culture. Business Review Weekly, 42-45.Google Scholar
  29. Griffin, D., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445.Google Scholar
  30. Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C. K. (1994). Competing for the future. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hater, J., & Bass, B. (1988). Superiors' evaluations and subordinates' perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 695-702.Google Scholar
  32. Hegarty, W. H. (1974). Using subordinate ratings to elicit behavioural change in supervisors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 764-766.Google Scholar
  33. Hemphill, J. K., & Coons, A. E. (1957). Development of the leader behavior description questionnaire. In R. M. Stogdill & A. E. Coons (Eds.), Leader behavior: Its description and measurement. Columbus: Ohio State University Bur. Business Res. Monograph No 88.Google Scholar
  34. Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. (1993). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 891-902.Google Scholar
  35. Howell, J. M., & Higgins, C. A. (1990). Champions of change: Identifying, understanding, and supporting champions of technological innovations. Organizational Dynamics, Summer, 40-55.Google Scholar
  36. Industry Task Force on Leadership and Management Skills. Enterprising Nation Vol 1 and 2. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Services.Google Scholar
  37. Joreskog, K., & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: User's reference guide. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Co.Google Scholar
  38. Judd, C., Jessor, R., & Donovan, J. (1986). Structural equation models and personality research. Journal of Personality, 54, 149-198.Google Scholar
  39. Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (1987). The leadership challenge: How to get extraordinary things done in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  40. Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (1990). Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI): A self-assessment and analysis. San Diego Pfeiffer & Co.Google Scholar
  41. Larson, C. E., & LaFasto, F. M. (1989). Team-work: What must go right/what can go wrong. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  42. Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Latent variables models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  43. McDonald, R. P., & Marsh, H. W. (1990). Choosing a multivariate model: Noncentrality and goodness of fit. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 247-255.Google Scholar
  44. Messick, S. (1989). Validity. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement, (3rd ed., pp. 13-103). New York: American Council on Education and Mcmillan Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  45. Murphy, K. R., & Davidshofer, C. O. (1994). Psychological testing: Principles and applications (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  46. Nadler, D., & Tushman, M. (1990). Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organisational change. California Management Review, 32, 77-97.Google Scholar
  47. Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Moorman, S., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107-142.Google Scholar
  48. Ragins, B. R. (1989). Power and gender congruency effects in evaluations of male and female managers. Journal of Management, 15, 65-76.Google Scholar
  49. Riechmann, D. (1992). High involvement, high performance teams in higher education: The impact of leadership. In K. E. Clark, M. B. Clark, & D. P. Campbell (Eds.), Impact of leadership (pp. 257-268). Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.Google Scholar
  50. Rubio, D. M., & Gillespie, D. F. (1995). Problems with error in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modelling, 2, 367-378.Google Scholar
  51. Sashkin, M. (1988). Visionary leadership. In J. Conger, R. Kanungo & Associates. Charismatic leadership: The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  52. Sashkin, M. (1990). The visionary leader trainer guide: Leader Behavior Questionnaire (3rd ed.). Pennsylvania: Organisation Development and Design.Google Scholar
  53. Schaubroeck, J., & Kuehn, K. (1992). Research design in industrial and organisational psychology. In C. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International Review of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Volume 7 (pp. 99-121). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Seltzer, J., & Bass, B. (1990). Transformational leadership: Beyond initiation and consideration. Journal of Management, 16, 693-703.Google Scholar
  55. Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4, 577-594.Google Scholar
  56. Smither, J. W., London, M., Vasilopoulous, Reilly, R. R., Millsap, R. E., & Salvemini, N. (1995). An examination of the effects of an upward feedback program over time. Personnel Psychology, 48, 1-34.Google Scholar
  57. Stevens, J. J. (1995). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Iowa tests of basic skills. Structural Equation Modelling, 2, 214-231.Google Scholar
  58. Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1986). Transformational leadership. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  59. Tjosvold, D., Andrews, I. R., & Struthers, J. (1991). Power and interdependence on work groups: Views of managers and employees. Group & Organization Studies, 16, 285-299.Google Scholar
  60. Walderman, D., Bass, B., & Yammarino, F. (1990). Adding to contingent-reward behavior: The augmenting effect of charismatic leadership. Group and Organizational Studies, 15, 381-394.Google Scholar
  61. Wawn, T., Green, J., and others, Barraclough & Co. (1995). Experienced insights: Opinions of Australian managers, ideals, strengths & weaknesses. In Industry Task Force on Leadership and Management Skills. Enterprising Nation Vol. 1 (pp. 521-586). Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Services.Google Scholar
  62. Yammarino, F. J., & Bass, B. (1990). Long-term forecasting of transformational leadership and its effects among naval officers: Some preliminary findings. In K. E. Clark, & M. B. Clark, (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 171-184). West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America.Google Scholar
  63. Yukl, G. (1994). Leadership in organisations (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sally A. Carless
    • 1
  • Alexander J. Wearing
    • 2
  • Leon Mann
    • 2
  1. 1.Monash UniversityCaulfieldAustralia
  2. 2.University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations