Skip to main content

Value Orientations, Income and Displacement Effects, and Voluntary Contributions


Identifying the value orientations of subjects participating in market or non-market decisions by having them participate in a ring game may be helpful in understanding the behaviour of these subjects. This experiment presents the results of changes in the centre and the radius of a value orientations ring in an attempt to discover if the measured value orientations exhibit income or displacement effects. Neither significant income effects nor displacement effects are identified. An external validity check with a voluntary contribution game provides evidence that value orientations from rings centred around the origin of the decision-space explain significant portions of voluntary contributions while value orientations from displaced rings do not.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Brown, P.M., Cameron, L.D., and Chapman, J.G. (1996). “Understanding Compliance with an Environmental Regulation.” Manuscript.

  • Buckley, N., Mestelman, S., and Shehata, M. (2001). “Subsidizing Public Inputs.” Journal of Public Economics. forthcoming.

  • Cameron, L.D., Brown, P.M., and Chapman, J.G. (1998). “Social Value Orientations and Decisions to Take Proenvironmental Action.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28, 675–697.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dehue, F.M., McClintock, C.G., and Liebrand, W.B.G. (1993). “Social Value Related Response Latencies: Unobtrusive Evidence for Individual Differences in Information Processing.” European Journal of Social Psychology. 23, 273–293.

    Google Scholar 

  • Griesinger, D.W. and Livingston, Jr., J.W. (1973). “Toward a Model of Interpersonal Motivation in Experimental Games.” Behavioral Science. 18, 173–188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuhlman, D.M. and Marchello, A. (1975). “Individual Differences in the Game Motives of Own, Relative, and Joint Gain.” Journal of Research in Personality. 9, 240–251.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liebrand, W.B.G. (1984). “The Effect of Social Motives, Communication and Group Size on Behaviour in an n-Person Multi-Stage Mixed-Motive Game.” European Journal of Social Psychology. 14, 239–264.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liebrand, W.B.G. and van Run, G.J. (1985). “The Effects of Social Motives on Behaviour in Social Dilemmas in Two Cultures.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 21, 86–102.

    Google Scholar 

  • Offerman, T. (1997). Beliefs and Decision Rules: Theory and Experiments. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dortrecht, The Netherlands.

    Google Scholar 

  • Offerman, T., Sonnemans, J., and Schram, A. (1996). “Value Orientations, Expectations and Voluntary Contributions in Public Goods.” Economic Journal. 106, 817–845.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rusbult, Caryl E. and Van Lange, Paul A.M. (1996). “Interdependence Processes.” In E. Tory Higgins and Arie W. Kruglanski (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. The Guilford Press, New York, pp. 564–596.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Buckley, N., Chan, K.S., Chowhan, J. et al. Value Orientations, Income and Displacement Effects, and Voluntary Contributions. Experimental Economics 4, 183–195 (2001).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

  • value orientation
  • individual behavior
  • experiments