Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 233–249 | Cite as

Developmental pathways of somatic embryogenesis

  • Sara von Arnold
  • Izabela Sabala
  • Peter Bozhkov
  • Julia Dyachok
  • Lada Filonova


Somatic embryogenesis is defined as a process in which a bipolar structure, resembling a zygotic embryo, develops from a non-zygotic cell without vascular connection with the original tissue. Somatic embryos are used for studying regulation of embryo development, but also as a tool for large scale vegetative propagation. Somatic embryogenesis is a multi-step regeneration process starting with formation of proembryogenic masses, followed by somatic embryo formation, maturation, desiccation and plant regeneration. Although great progress has been made in improving the protocols used, it has been revealed that some treatments, coinciding with increased yield of somatic embryos, can cause adverse effects on the embryo quality, thereby impairing germination and ex vitro growth of somatic embryo plants. Accordingly, ex vitro growth of somatic embryo plants is under a cumulative influence of the treatments provided during the in vitro phase. In order to efficiently regulate the formation of plants via somatic embryogenesis it is important to understand how somatic embryos develop and how the development is influenced by different physical and chemical treatments. Such knowledge can be gained through the construction of fate maps representing an adequate number of morphological and molecular markers, specifying critical developmental stages. Based on this fate map, it is possible to make a model of the process. The mechanisms that control cell differentiation during somatic embryogenesis are far from clear. However, secreted, soluble signal molecules play an important role. It has long been observed that conditioned medium from embryogenic cultures can promote embryogenesis. Active components in the conditioned medium include endochitinases, arabinogalactan proteins and lipochitooligosaccharides.

conditioning factors regulation of embryo development tracking of somatic embryogenesis zygotic embryos 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara von Arnold
    • 1
  • Izabela Sabala
    • 2
  • Peter Bozhkov
    • 1
  • Julia Dyachok
    • 1
  • Lada Filonova
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest GeneticsSLUUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Laboratory for Gene Expression, IMSBAarhus UniversityAarhus CDenmark

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