Learning Environments Research

, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 293–319 | Cite as

Creating a Learning Environment by Using Self-, Peer- and Co-Assessment

  • D. Sluijsmans
  • F. Dochy
  • G. Moerkerke


To develop the skills and competencies required in professional organisations, students have to reflect on their own behaviour. Many current assessment practices in higher education do not answer this need. The recent interest in new assessment forms, such as self-, peer-, and co-assessment, can be seen as a means to tackle this problem. In the present article, a review of the literature provides answers to two questions: (1) How are self-, peer- and co-assessment applied in higher education? and (2) What are the effects of the use of these forms of assessment on the quality of the learning environment? Analyses of 62 studies showed that self-, peer- and co-assessment can be effective tools in developing competencies needed as a professional. These forms of assessment are often used in combination with each other. Implementation of these forms of assessments accelerates the developments of a curriculum based on competencies (knowledge as a tool) rather than knowledge (as a goal) and leads towards the integration of instruction and assessment in higher education. As such, this development of a learning environment contributes to the education of responsible and reflective professionals.

co-assessment higher education learning environment peer-assessment self-assessment 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Sluijsmans
    • 1
  • F. Dochy
    • 2
  • G. Moerkerke
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Educational Technology and ExpertiseOpen University of the NetherlandsHeerlenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Center for Research on Instructional Technology and Teacher Training, Department of Educational SciencesUniversity of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium E-mail

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