Advertisement

Assessing Students in Community Settings: The Role of Peer Evaluation

  • Mohi Eldin M.A. Magzoub
  • Ahmed A. Abdelhameed
  • Henk G. Schmidt
  • Diana H.J.M. Dolmans
Article

Abstract

The assessment of students in community settings faces unique difficulties. Since students are usually posted in small groups in different community settings and since the learning (largely) takes place outside the classroom, assessing student performance becomes an intrinsically complex endeavor. In this article, the proposition is made and tested that peers may be used to accurately assess particular aspects of performance, in particular those which need extensive and close observation. Examples are: Effort displayed while working in a community, quality of the interaction with that community, display of leadership, and subject-matter contributions.

The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Gezira, a community-based medical school, uses peer evaluation to assess these attributes of its students. Thirty four students divided into three groups participated in the present study. Goals of the study were to appraise the reliability, validity and acceptability of an instrument designed to measure these characteristics. Reliability was estimated using generalizability theory. A high generalizability coefficient (G) was found when all items were taken into account. In this case, G equaled 0.97. Its sub-scales each had also fairly high G-coefficients: Effort: 0.89, Subject-matter Contribution: 0.91, Community Interaction: 0.89, and Leadership: 0,88 respectively. The validity of the instrument was studied using confirmatory factor analysis. The results suggested that the proposed model of peer evaluation is reasonably valid. Finally, the instrument turned out to be quite acceptable to students.

peer evaluation student assessment reliability validity acceptability 

References

  1. Brennan, R.L. & Kane, M.T. (1979). Generalizability theory: A review. New Directions for Testing and Measurement 4: 33–51.Google Scholar
  2. Calhoun, G.J., Ten Haken, D.J. & Wooliscroft, J.O. (1990). Medical students' development of self-and peer-assessment skills: A longitudinal study. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 2: 25–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crick, J.E. & Brennan, R.L. (1983). Manual for Genova: A generalized analysis of variance system. Iowa: American College Testing Program.Google Scholar
  4. De Grave, W. & De Volder, M. (1984). Peer evaluation and problem-based learning In: H.G. Schmidt & M.L. De Volder (Eds.), Tutorials in problem-based learning. Van Gorcum: Assen/Maastricht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  5. DesMarchais, J.E., Dumais, B. & Allard, J. (1993). Community clinical immersion in first year student and program evaluation. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Student assessment (with special emphasis on assessment in community settings). Malaysia, January 10–15. The Network of Community-Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences, Maastricht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  6. Epstein, L.C. & Northrub, R.S. (1993). The student's role in Assessment: Building a progression in problem-based learning (PBL). Paper presented at the International Symposium on Student assessment (with special emphasis on assessment in community settings). Malaysia, January 10–15. The Network of Community-Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences, Maastricht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  7. Erickson, G.P. (1987). Peer evaluation as a teaching-learning strategy in baccalaureate education for community health nursing. Journal of Nursing Education 26: 204–206.Google Scholar
  8. Fenn, J., Aurona, T., Natu, S., Singh, T., Natu, M. V. & Zachariah, A. (1993). Peer assessment of interpersonal Behaviour and its psychological impact. Paper presented to the International Symposium on Student assessment (with special emphasis on assessment in community settings). Malaysia, January 10–15. The Network of Community-Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  9. Ferguson, G.A. (1981). Statistical analysis in psychology and education (5th ed.). Auckland: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  10. Goldman, R.L. (1992). The reliability of peer assessments of quality of care. Journal of the American Medical Association 267: 958–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hassan, M.H.M. (1993). Community and Family study program at the Universiti Sains Malaysia: An experience in peer assessment in the fourth and final year. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Student assessment (with special emphasis on assessment in community settings). Malaysia, January 10–15. The Network of Community-Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  12. Jennet, P.A, Van Rosendaal, G.M.A., Lockyer, J.M., McDougall, G.M., Hunter, K.E. & Schachar, N.S. (1990). Peer evaluation in residency programs. In: W. Bender, R.J. Hiemstra, A.J.J.A. Scherpbier & R.P. Zwierstra (Eds.), Teaching and assessing clinical competence. Groningen, the Netherlands: Boekwerk Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Jinadu, M.K. & Davies-Adetugbo (1992). Experience in community-based education for health professionals. Annals of Community-oriented Education 5: 55–60.Google Scholar
  14. Joreskog, K.G. & Sorbom, D. (1990). Lisrel VII. User's guide. Chicago, Ill: National Educational Resources.Google Scholar
  15. Kane, J.S. & Lawler, E.E. (1978). Methods of peer assessment. Psychological Bulletin 85: 555–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Love, K.G. (1981). Comparison of peer assessment methods: Reliability, validity, friendship bias, and user reaction. Journal of Applied Psychology 66: 451–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Magzoub, M.E.M.A., Abdelhameed, A.A. & Ahmed, B.A. (1993). Assessing group work in a community-based learning. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Students assessment. Malaysia, January 10–15. The Network of Community Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  18. Manalo, A.H. (1993). Assessment of second year students doing community medicine work in a selected community. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Student assessment (with special emphasis on assessment in community settings). Malaysia, January 10–15. The Network of Community Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  19. Morales-Samaneigo, I. (1993). Students perception of peer evaluation as an assessment toll in community activities. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Student assessment (with special emphasis on assessment in community settings). Malaysia, January 10–15. The Network of Community-Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  20. Omatara, B.A., Padonu, M.K.O., Bassi, A.P. & Amodu, M.O. (1992). Community-based medical education: The university of Maiduguri experience. Annals of Community-oriented Education 5: 41–46.Google Scholar
  21. Saris, W. & Stronkhorst, H. (1984). Causal modelling in nonexperimental research. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Sociometric Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  22. Schmidt, H.G., Neufeld, V.R., Nooman, M.Z. & Ogunbode, T. (1991). Network for community-oriented educational institutions for the health sciences. Academic Medicine 66: 259–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shavelson, R.J. & Webb, N.M. (1991). Generalizability theory. A primer. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Williams, E. (1992). Student attitudes towards approaches to learning and assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 17: 45–58.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohi Eldin M.A. Magzoub
    • 1
  • Ahmed A. Abdelhameed
    • 1
  • Henk G. Schmidt
    • 2
  • Diana H.J.M. Dolmans
    • 2
  1. 1.University of GeziraWad MedaniSudan
  2. 2.University of MaastrichtMaastrichtthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations