The coronavirus disease 2019 has been declared a pandemic by The World Health Organization (WHO).Footnote 3 As of 26 March 2021, 1,25,614,782 global cases have been identified with a total of 27,57,339 deaths.Footnote 4 This data comes from 192 countries, which means that the whole population is affected in some way by Covid-19. Ecological economic and feminist economic literature review might help to show possible reasons for and effects of this new pandemic.
Ecological perspective: the role of biodiversity loss and intensive agriculture in animal-borne diseases and Covid-19
Some of the processes that violate nature could have possibly supported the Covid-19 pandemic. Jones et al.  identified 335 diseases that are linked to environmental change causing human behaviour. At least 60% of these came from animals. Deforestation, destruction of natural habitat, causing erosion by building roads and houses, by mining, etc. bring people into closer contact with animals and also degraded habitats are likely to carry more viruses and most of the farming practices also contribute to the emergence of these diseases . Rohr et al.  has found, that intensive agriculture contributed to more than half of all infectious diseases, that leaped from animals to humans since 1940.
Loss of biodiversity and deforestation lead to risking a very important ecosystem service, that is the ability to reduce virus emergence. Diversity within species and natural habitats supports living beings’ adaptive capacity against viruses and bacteria. If in the agricultural production process corporations and nations only breed a few species in extreme high numbers, while caused the fast extinction of other species (and the destruction of habitats and erosion)—the ability to reduce virus emergence will be put at risk. Animal agriculture is one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gases emissions and it provides an amazing opportunity for viruses to thrive.Footnote 5
We urgently have to deal with the contradictions of intensive agriculture, that on the one hand provides more food for the population but on the other hand is unacceptable from an animal ethics perspective and that also threatens more planetary boundaries (such as the biosphere integrity, the biogeochemical cycles, the land-systems, and the fight against climate change).
However, the Covid-19 pandemic has some positive impacts on these planetary boundaries as well. It might cause a drop in emissions in the short run. In the long run emissions will probably rebound, but might remain down until a vaccine is found. On the other hand, the emerging economic crises might also keep emissions depressed for some years. Some of the new adaptive behaviours, business models and technologies could also support the transition to a low-carbon economy. In most core and some semi-periphery countries home-schooling, home-working and remote medical services might lead to an increase in flexible working hours. If public transport demand was flat across the day, then public-transport investments could be more cost-effective.Footnote 6
Sustainability is not just about environmental protection. Sustainability has three dimensions. One of them is social equity. Domestic violence, various forms of male chauvinism, sexual violations of children throughout the internet could and already are escalating amid curfew and lockdowns both in developed and in poorer economies .
Gender equality perspective on Covid-19
Effects on SDG 5, Target 5.4—unpaid care work
The 2020 new corona virus pandemic shows, how fragile our economic and health care systems are. In 18 countries women are doing much more around the family and the house due to Covid-19 prevention measures . In Hungary men had been doing more household work, but women carried out a far greater proportion of child-related tasks prior to the introduction of the coronavirus-related regulations .
The unpaid care work, that is mostly done by women is the backbone of the response to Covid-19. This work consists of maintaining the health and well-being of children, the sick and the elderly as well as health promotion and prevention activities. As a result of school and day-care closures some mothers will lose, or “willingly” give up their jobs to stay home with the children. If they can work in home-office, then they face stress and multitasking, that might affect their health. Grandmothers also provide great help, possibly risking their own health. Low-paid care work jobs are also mostly done by women, who now will be more exposed to the risk of contracting the disease. The rise in unpaid care work has also other consequences for gender equality: the psychosocial effects from providing care to infected relatives. Community health workers (mostly women) of periphery countries will be needed as well, but they will keep receiving little or no compensation for their work . Easter European and Central Asian organizations urged the international community and political decision-makers to recognize the risks of Covid-19 for women: it could result in a roll back in women’s rights, if appropriate responses and recovery planning are not urgently undertaken .
Effects on SDG 5, Target 5.2—violence against women
According to von Werlhof  patriarchy has the characters of systematic domination and oppression of women. Now, in the times of Covid-19 many women have to bear with their often abusive male partners within the four walls of their homes, a black box in neoclassical economics. On the 6th of April 2020 UN Secretary-General António Guterres has warned about a sharp rise in domestic violence (in some countries—also in Hungary—the number of women calling support services has doubledFootnote 7) amid global coronavirus lockdowns, that threatens SDG 5, Target 5.2 that is the elimination of all forms of violence against all women and girls. The rise of violence was expected as men restricted to their homes are having more time to do what society allows them to do: show and practice domination. Curfew also makes it easier for abusers to isolate their victims. China and the UK reported, that domestic violence have more than doubled in Covid-19 lockdown period between February and April 2020, compared to the same period of the previous year . The Italian national network of shelters for women marked a steep increase (74.5%) in the number of women who contacted shelters within the period of Covid-19 lockdown . Belizzi et al.  even states that “Covid‐19 and violence against women are interrelated pandemics”. According to Bellizzi et al.  Covid-19 disruptions have unfortunately also lead to “significant delays in programmes to end FGM”, which is female genital mutilation, “potentially leading to around two million more cases of FGM over the next decade” and to “an expected additional 31 million cases of gender-based violence and 13 million more child marriages over the next 10 years”.
A new UN Women survey  assessed the pandemic’s effects on SDG 5 in 11 Asia–Pacific countries. Data showed that “women’s economic resources are being hit hardest”. It also states, that the pandemic has disproportionately affected women’s mental and emotional health and as the unpaid care and domestic workload has increased, “women are bearing the heaviest burden”. Data showed, that the salary of women has fallen caused by reduced formal workers’ hours and lost informal workers’ jobs. The survey also showed that the curfews had put women’s safety at risk, and that “institutional responses are inadequate”. It’s main finding is, that Covid-19 is putting the implementation of SDG 5 at risk in Asia and the Pacific region.
After reviewing the data, that exist upon the gendered effects of Covid-19, we can see that there are many negative effects for women all over the world (UK, China, Hungary, Asia–Pacific countries, etc.). In the next section following questions will be discussed: why is Covid-19 affecting women negatively and how is this process also linked to environmental degradation. For that purpose some fundamental concepts such as social and natural reproduction and capitalist patriarchy and production will be described, and used as axioms.