The analyses were funded by an unrestricted grant from Teva Pharmaceuticals Limited of Petach Tikva, Israel. Access to data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database was co-funded by Research in Real-Life Ltd (RiRL), Cambridge, UK. All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given final approval to the version to be published. The authors thank Julie von Ziegenweidt for assistance with data extraction.
In the past 3 years, Nicolas Roche received (1) fees for speaking, organizing education, participation in advisory boards or consulting from 3 M, Aerocrine, Almirall, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Cipla, GlaxoSmithKline, MSD-Chibret, Mundipharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Sandoz, Sanofi, Stallergenes, Takeda, Teva; (2) research grants from Novartis, Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer. Gene Colice has acted as a speaker/consultant/Advisory Board member for Teva, MedImmune, Mylan, Boehringer Ingelheim. Elliot Israel reports having received over the past 3 years consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Cowen & Co, Novartis, Philips Respironics, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, and TEVA Specialty Pharmaceuticals; fees for expert testimony from Campbell, Campbell, Edwards & Conroy, Crammer, Bishop & O’Brien, Fox Rothschild, and Ryan Ryan Deluca LLP; travel grant support from Research in Real Life (RiRL), TEVA Specialty Pharmaceuticals; Royalties from UpToDate; Deputy Editor fees from the American Thoracic Society; DSMB Member for Novartis with no compensation; and having grant support paid to his Institution from Genentech and the NIH. Richard J. Martin has done consultancy work and/or received travel support and/or honoraria for attendance at advisory boards for Teva; received research grants from MedImmune and the NHLBI; received royalties from UpToDate. Paul M. Dorinsky was a full-time Teva employee at the time this project was initiated. He was not employed by Teva when the project was completed or during manuscript preparation. The University of Groningen has received money for Dirkje S. Postma regarding an unrestricted educational grant for research from AstraZeneca. Travel to ERS and/or ATS has been partially funded by AstraZeneca, Chiesi, GSK, Takeda. Fees for consultancies were given to the University of Groningen by AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, GSK, Takeda and TEVA. Travel and lectures in China paid by Chiesi. Theresa W. Guilbert reports personal fees from American Board of Pediatrics; Pediatric Pulmonary Subboard, grants and personal fees from Teva, personal fees from GSK and Merck, personal fees from Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, grants from CDC, grants from DHHS, grants from NIH, grants from UW-Madison Medical and Education Research Committee, grants from Abbott Laboratories, grants from Array Biopharma, grants from Mylan, grants from Forest Research Institute, grants from F. Hoffman-LaRoche, grants from Medimmune, grants from KaloBios Pharmaceuticals, grants from Vertex Pharmaceuticals, grants from Roxane Laboratories and CompleWare Corporation, grants from CF Foundation Therapeutics, grants from Roche/Genentech, and royalties from UpToDate. Jonathan Grigg received honoraria from Novartis as a member of an advisory board for an asthma medication and received travel expenses and hotel accommodation from Research in Real Life Ltd, to attend meetings related to the study. Willem M.C. van Aalderen is a member of the Medical Advisory Board of AstraZeneca. Francesca Barion, Victoria Thomas, Anne Burden, and R. Brett McQueen were employees of RiRL, which conducted this study and which has conducted paid research in respiratory disease on behalf of the following other organizations in the past 5 years: Aerocrine, AKL Ltd, Almirall, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, GlaxoSmithKline, Meda, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, Orion, Takeda, Teva, and Zentiva. Elizabeth V. Hillyer is a consultant to RiRL and has received payment for writing and editorial support to Merck. David B. Price has Board Membership with Aerocrine, Almirall, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Meda, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, and Teva. Consultancy: Almirall, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, GlaxoSmithKline, Meda, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, Pfizer, Teva, and Zentiva; Grants/Grants Pending with UK National Health Service, British Lung Foundation, Aerocrine, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Meda, Merck, Mundipharma, Novartis, Orion, Pfizer, Respiratory Effectiveness Group, Takeda, Teva, and Zentiva; Payments for lectures/speaking: Almirall, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Cipla, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyorin, Meda, Merck, Mundipharma, Novartis, Pfizer, SkyePharma, Takeda, and Teva; Payment for manuscript preparation: Mundipharma and Teva; Patents (planned, pending or issued): AKL Ltd.; Payment for the development of educational materials: GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis; Stock/Stock options: Shares in AKL Ltd which produces phytopharmaceuticals and owns 80% of Research in Real Life Ltd and its subsidiary social enterprise Optimum Patient Care; received Payment for travel/accommodations/meeting expenses from Aerocrine, Boehringer Ingelheim, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, and Teva; Funding for patient enrollment or completion of research: Almirral, Chiesi, Teva, and Zentiva; Peer reviewer for grant committees: Medical Research Council (2014), Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation programme (2012), HTA (2014); and Received unrestricted funding for investigator-initiated studies from Aerocrine, AKL Ltd, Almirall, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Meda, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, Orion, Takeda, Teva, and Zentiva.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
This was a retrospective study utilizing anonymized patient data, for which formal consent is not required.