Skip to main content

In-use Emission Measurements from Two High-Speed Passenger Ferries Operating in California with Tier 2 and Tier 3 Marine Diesel Engines

Abstract

Marine diesel engines operating in ferries and other commercial harbor craft (CHC) represent a significant fraction of near-source health risk to port and coastal communities, and emissions must be reduced to protect public health and meet federal national ambient air quality standards. In this study, we measured in-use particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions — including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from two high-speed passenger ferries in the San Francisco Bay Area: one equipped with tier 2 engines with 18,096 h, the other equipped with tier 3 marine engines with 6392 h at the commencement of the study. Whereas marine engines are certified by United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) over the ISO 8178 E3 steady-state cycle, we used portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) to measure emissions during normal revenue service, which includes some transient and some steady-state operation. Measured real-world emissions were below relevant certification limits for CO, NOx, and PM; average in-use NOx emissions were 4.62 and 3.62 g/bhp-h for the tier 2 and tier 3 engine, respectively, CO emissions were 1.55 and 1.60 g/bhp-h for the tier 2 and tier 3 engine, respectively, and PM emissions were 0.044 g/bhp-h for the tier 3 engine. The ferry with tier 3 engines was also equipped with an aftermarket selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system designed to further reduce NOx emissions to levels below the certification level of the engine. However, due to a diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) dosing malfunction, no appreciable NOx reductions were recorded during the testing. The SCR system was designed with a platinum-group metal oxidation catalyst to reduce ammonia slip, which may have contributed to the observed 76% reduction in CO, 74% reduction in PM, and 23% increase in the NO2/NOx ratio. Findings from this study suggest certification data are good predictors of real-world emissions from tier 2 and tier 3 marine engines and underscore the need to properly maintain and operate SCR systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. CARB: Public hearing to consider the proposed amendments to the commercial harbor craft regulation. https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/sites/default/files/barcu/regact/2021/chc2021/isor.pdf (2021). Accessed Oct 2021

  2. Pope, C.A., III., Dockery, D.W.: Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 56(6), 709–742 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Corbett, J.J., et al.: Mortality from ship emissions: a global assessment. Environ Sci Technol 41(24), 8512–8518 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. CARB: Revised proposed 2016 state strategy for the date implentation plan. https://ww3.arb.ca.gov/planning/sip/2016sip/rev2016statesip.pdf (2017). Accessed Oct 2021

  5. SCAQMD: Final 2016 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP). https://www.aqmd.gov/home/air-quality/clean-air-plans/air-quality-mgt-plan/final-2016-aqmp (2016). Accessed Oct 2021

  6. CARB: Update on concepts to minimize the community health impacts from large freight facilities advance materials. https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/sites/default/files/2018-10/revised_freight_facility_concepts_advance_materials_03142018.pdf (2018). Accessed Oct 2021

  7. Jayaram, V., et al.: Evaluating emission benefits of a hybrid tug boat. CARB Contract #07-413 and #07-419. https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/sites/default/files/2020-12/hybridreport1010_remediated.pdf (2010). Accessed Oct 2021

  8. Jayaram, V., et al.: Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel. Environ Sci Technol 45(6), 2286–2292 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Russell, R., Welch, B., O’Neil, E.: Emissions from a harbor craft vessel using retrofit emission control technologies. CARB Contract No: 03-0405 and 12-425. https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/sites/default/files/2020-12/report0415_remediated.pdf (2015). Accessed Oct 2021

  10. Lack, D., et al.: Light absorbing carbon emissions from commercial shipping. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13) (2008)

  11. Buffaloe, G., et al.: Black carbon emissions from in-use ships: a California regional assessment. Atmos Chem Phys 14(4), 1881–1896 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Quiros, D.C., et al.: Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty natural gas, hybrid, and conventional diesel on-road trucks during freight transport. Atmos Environ 168, 36–45 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. CARB: California low sulfur diesel fuel fact sheet [cited 2022; Available from: https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/resources/fact-sheets/california-low-sulfur-diesel-fuel-fact-sheet (2018)

  14. CARB: Commercial Harbor Craft Regulation. Section number 93118.5. https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/sites/default/files/barcu/regact/2007/chc07/rev93118.pdf?_ga=2.223924891.1093052338.1645207227-2012481376.1590702757 (2008)

  15. Sensors-Inc.: On-Vehicle Diesel Emission Analyzer SEMTECH-DS User Manual. Document #9510-086 (2007)

  16. AVL: AVL Micro Soot Sensor Operating Manual. Document AT1861E (2013)

  17. CARB: Procedure for the analysis of particulate anions and cations in motor vehicle exhaust by ion chromatography. SOP MV-AEROSOL-142 Version 2.4. https://www.arb.ca.gov/testmeth/slb/sop142v2-4.pdf (2019).  Accessed Oct 2021 

  18. Quiros, D.C., et al.: Real-world emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel, natural gas, and hybrid diesel trucks operating along major California freight corridors. Emission Control Sci Technol 2(3), 156–172 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Frederickson, C., Miller, W., Jung H.: Investigation of harbor craft activities for emission inventory calculation. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 72(2), 202–209 (2022)

  20. Villamaina, R., et al.: Effect of the NH 4 NO 3 addition on the low-T NH 3-SCR performances of individual and combined Fe-and Cu-zeolite catalysts. Emission Control Sci Technol 5(4), 290–296 (2019)

  21. Mu, J., et al.: Enhancement of low-temperature catalytic activity over a highly dispersed Fe–Mn/Ti catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO x with NH3. Ind Eng Chem Res 57(31), 10159–10169 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Marchitti, F., et al.: Enhancing the low-T NH 3-SCR activity of a commercial Fe-zeolite catalyst by NH 4 NO 3 dosing: an experimental and modeling study. Emission Control Sci Technol 2(1), 1–9 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Wei, L., et al.: Combustion process and NOx emissions of a marine auxiliary diesel engine fuelled with waste cooking oil biodiesel blends. Energy 144, 73–80 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hauptmann, W., et al.: Global kinetic models for the oxidation of NO on platinum under lean conditions. Top Catal 42(1–4), 157–160 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Sampara, C.S., et al.: Global kinetics for platinum diesel oxidation catalysts. Ind Eng Chem Res 46(24), 7993–8003 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Silvis, W.M.: Measurement of in-use PM using soot augmented with a gravimetric reference. SAE Int J Engines 5(3), 1394–1409 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Minami, T., Takeuchi, K., Shimazaki, N.: Reduction of diesel engine NOx using pilot injection. SAE Transactions Vol. 104, Section 3. Journal of Engines 1104–1111, 950611 (1995)

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank all the individuals who assisted during the project planning and testing; these individuals include Grant Sellar, Timothy Hanners, Damon Brewer, Saeed Abolhasani, and Ron Stewart. The authors acknowledge M.-C. Oliver Chang, and Ying You for their contributions to ion chromatography analysis.

Funding

This work was funded through grant agreement from CARB to the University of California, number 18TTD005. The statements and opinions expressed in this paper are solely the authors’ and do not represent the official position of CARB.

The mention of trade names, products, and organizations does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. CARB is a Department of the California Environmental Protection Agency. CARB’s mission is to promote and protect public health, welfare, and ecological resources through effective reduction of air pollutants while recognizing and considering effects on the economy. CARB oversees all air pollution control efforts in California to attain and maintain health-based air quality standards.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Heejung S. Jung.

Ethics declarations

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Frederickson, C., Jung, H.S., Liu, W. et al. In-use Emission Measurements from Two High-Speed Passenger Ferries Operating in California with Tier 2 and Tier 3 Marine Diesel Engines. Emiss. Control Sci. Technol. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40825-022-00212-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40825-022-00212-x

Keywords

  • Commercial harbor craft
  • Marine
  • Ferry
  • Aftermarket
  • Selective catalytic reduction
  • Diesel engines