The Psychological Record

, Volume 64, Issue 4, pp 693–702 | Cite as

Generalized Identity Matching-to-Sample After Multiple-Exemplar Training in Capuchin Monkeys

  • Ana Leda F. Brino
  • Olavo F. Galvão
  • Carlos R. F. Picanço
  • Romariz S. Barros
  • Carlos B. A. Souza
  • Paulo R. K. Goulart
  • William J. McIlvane
Original Article


A multiple-exemplar identity matching-to-sample baseline was established to encourage development of generalized identity matching-to-sample (IDMTS) performances in three adult male capuchins. Mask (blank comparison) or Shuffled S- procedures were used to promote select (sample-S+) control in baseline relations and to assess stimulus control relations in generalized IDMTS tests. The IDMTS baseline comprised eight 3-stimulus sets or four 4-stimulus sets. Probe trials with new stimulus sets were substituted for baseline sets in successive testing sessions and subsequently converted to new baseline relations. All monkeys exhibited high accuracy on generalized IDMTS tests. A monkey who was given the Mask procedure in training and tests showed generalized IDMTS with select relations predominating. Two monkeys who were given training and testing with the Shuffled S- procedure performed somewhat better on Shuffled S- IDMTS test trials than on test trials that contained nonshuffled IDMTS trials, thus suggesting that exclusion of familiar nonmatching comparison stimuli from baseline in Shuffled S- test trials contributed to the higher accuracy scores with the former procedure. Development of select relations appeared to be a positive predictor of development of generalized IDMTS.


Generalized identity matching-to-sample Multiple-exemplar training Select and reject relations Capuchin monkeys 


Author Notes

Support for this research was provided by grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technologic Development (CNPq) to the authors. Additional support was provided by CNPq (573972/2008-7) and Research Support Foundation of São Paulo State (FAPESP 08/57705-8) to National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition and Education. The last author’s participation was supported by NIH grants ES15464 and MH90272.

We thank Klena Sarges for medical-veterinarian assistance and Edilson F. Pastana for managing the animals. Concerning our animals, readers of past articles from our laboratory may wonder why we have not mentioned the capuchin species Cebus apella in this text. Until recently, capuchins were broadly termed Cebus monkeys. Now, they are divided into two genera (cf. Alfaro et al. 2012): Sapajus (tufted) and Cebus (untufted). Our monkeys are of the former genus.


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Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Leda F. Brino
    • 1
    • 3
  • Olavo F. Galvão
    • 1
  • Carlos R. F. Picanço
    • 1
  • Romariz S. Barros
    • 1
  • Carlos B. A. Souza
    • 1
  • Paulo R. K. Goulart
    • 1
  • William J. McIlvane
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidade Federal do ParáBelémBrazil
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  3. 3.Núcleo de Teoria e Pesquisa do ComportamentoUniversidade Federal do ParáBelémBrazil

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