• Cain N, Gradisar M. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Med. 2010;11(8):735–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2010.02.006
Proposed a model of potential mechanisms linking electronic media use to sleep in young people, which has guided recent research and been further updated by Bartel and Gradisar in 2017.
• Hale L, Guan S. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;21:50–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.07.007
Provides systematic review of existing studies examining different types of screen use (smartphone, TV etc.) and sleep in young people, as of 2015.
Van den Bulck J. The effects of media on sleep. Adolesc Med. 2010;21(3):418–29 vii.
Thomée S. Mobile phone use and mental health. A review of the research that takes a psychological perspective on exposure. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122692.
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Przybylski AK, Weinstein N. A large-scale test of the goldilocks hypothesis: quantifying the relations between digital-screen use and the mental well-being of adolescents. Psychol Sci. 2017;28(2):204–15. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797616678438.
Fox J, Moreland JJ. The dark side of social networking sites: an exploration of the relational and psychological stressors associated with Facebook use and affordances. Comput Hum Behav. 2015;45:168–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.083.
Scott H, Biello SM, Woods HC. Identifying drivers for bedtime social media use despite sleep costs: the adolescent perspective. Preprint: 12 Oct 2018. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/2xb36.
Mai LM, Freudenthaler R, Schneider FM, Vorderer P. “I know you’ve seen it!” Individual and social factors for users’ chatting behavior on Facebook. Comput Hum Behav. 2015;49:296–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.074.
Bhat S, Pinto-Zipp G, Upadhyay H, Polos PG. “To sleep, perchance to tweet”: in-bed electronic social media use and its associations with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, mood, and sleep duration in adults. Sleep Health. 2018;4(2):166–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2017.12.004.
•• Clark JL, Algoe SB, Green MC. Social network sites and well-being: the role of social connection. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2017;27(1):32–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721417730833
Proposes a unifying “interpersonal-connection-behaviours” framework to make sense of apparently contradictory findings in fragmented literature on social media and well-being.
Scott H, Woods HC. Fear of missing out and sleep: cognitive behavioural factors in adolescents’ nighttime social media use. J Adolesc. 2018;68:61–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.07.009.
•• Seabrook EM, Kern ML, Rickard NS. Social networking sites, depression, and anxiety: a systematic review. JMIR Ment Health. 2016;3(4):e50. https://doi.org/10.2196/mental.5842
Comprehensively catalogues how each study operationalised social media use and whether they found positive, negative or non-significant associations with anxiety, depression and mental well-being.
Levenson JC, Shensa A, Sidani JE, Colditz JB, Primack BA. Social media use before bed and sleep disturbance among young adults in the United States: a nationally representative study. Sleep. 2017;40(9):zsx113–zsx. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsx113.
• Screen time guidelines need to be built on evidence, not hype. The Guardian, 6 Jan 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/science/headquarters/2017/jan/06/screen-time-guidelines-need-to-be-built-on-evidence-not-hype. Accessed 11 July 2019. Open letter by an international group of scientists, arguing against “unhelpful” focus on “simplistic and arguably meaningless” concept of generic screen time, and calling for improved understanding of context and content.
Exelmans L, Scott H. Social Media Use and Sleep Quality among Adults: The Role of Gender, Age and Social Media Checking Habit. Preprint: 17 April 2019. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/eqxdh
Woods HC, Scott H. #Sleepyteens: social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem. J Adolesc. 2016;51:41–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.05.008.
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Jenkins-Guarnieri MA, Wright SL, Johnson B. Development and validation of a social media use integration scale. Psychol Pop Media Cult. 2013;2(1):38–50. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030277.
Levenson JC, Shensa A, Sidani JE, Colditz JB, Primack BA. The association between social media use and sleep disturbance among young adults. Prev Med. 2016;85(Supplement C):36–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.01.001.
•• Bartel K, Gradisar M. New directions in the link between technology use and sleep in young people. In: Nevšímalová S, Bruni O, editors. Sleep disorders in children. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017. p. 69–80. Discusses recent developments in research on technology use and sleep in young people, which updates Cain and Gradisar’s 2010 model of mechanisms.
Van den Bulck J. Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep. 2004;27(1):101–4.
Van den Bulck J. Text messaging as a cause of sleep interruption in adolescents, evidence from a cross-sectional study. J Sleep Res. 2003;12(3):263.
Exelmans L, Van den Bulck J. Bedtime, shuteye time and electronic media: sleep displacement is a two-step process. J Sleep Res. 2017;26(3):364–70. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12510.
Chang A-M, Aeschbach D, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2015;112(4):1232–7. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418490112.
Exelmans L, Van den Bulck J. Binge viewing, sleep, and the role of pre-sleep arousal. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(8):1001–8. https://doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.6704.
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McCloskey W, Iwanicki S, Lauterbach D, Giammittorio DM, Maxwell K. Are Facebook “friends” helpful? Development of a Facebook-based measure of social support and examination of relationships among depression, quality of life, and social support. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2015;18(9):499–505. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2014.0538.
McNee S, Woods HC. Pre-sleep Cognitive Influence of Night-time Social Media Use and Social Comparison Behaviour in Young Women. Preprint: 12 February 2019. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/n9txa.
Appel H, Crusius J, Gerlach AL. Social comparison, envy, and depression on Facebook: a study looking at the effects of high comparison standards on depressed individuals. J Soc Clin Psychol. 2015;34(4):277–89. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2015.34.4.277.
Primack BA, Karim SA, Shensa A, Bowman N, Knight J, Sidani JE. Positive and negative experiences on social media and perceived social isolation. Am J Health Promot. 2019:0890117118824196. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117118824196.
Orzech KM, Grandner MA, Roane BM, Carskadon MA. Digital media use in the 2 h before bedtime is associated with sleep variables in university students. Comput Hum Behav. 2016;55:43–50.
Harbard E, Allen NB, Trinder J, Bei B. What’s keeping teenagers up? Prebedtime behaviors and actigraphy-assessed sleep over school and vacation. J Adolesc Health. 2016;58(4):426–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.12.011.
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Caron J, Light J. “Social media has opened a world of ‘open communication:’” experiences of adults with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication and social media. Augment Altern Commun (Baltimore, Md : 1985). 2016;32(1):25–40. https://doi.org/10.3109/07434618.2015.1052887.
Scott H, Biello SM, Woods HC. Social media use and adolescent sleep outcomes: cross-sectional findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Preprint: 19 Feb 2019. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/z7kpf.
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• Flake JK, Pek J, Hehman E. Construct validation in social and personality research: current practice and recommendations. Soc Psychol Personal Sci. 2017;8(4):370–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617693063
Provides useful recommendations to guide researchers in evaluating the validity of measures when conducting and reading empirical studies.
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