Skip to main content

Using Small Case-Based Learning Groups as a Setting for Teaching Medical Students How to Provide and Receive Peer Feedback

Abstract

As future physicians, nearly all medical students will be required to provide face-to-face feedback. Moreover, receiving high-quality feedback from multiple perspectives is particularly valuable during the pre-clerkship training period. To address these needs, we developed a straightforward, easy-to-implement exercise that affords students the opportunity to practice giving and receiving feedback with peers. We describe how this exercise has been tailored to fit within the case-based learning small groups of our first-year curriculum and how to enhance the activity by weaving the basic principles of quality feedback into preparation sessions. This exercise has been valued greatly by students.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Ramsey PG, Wenrich MD, Carline JD, et al. Use of peer ratings to evaluate physician performance. JAMA. 1993;269:1655–60. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500130069034.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Veloski J, Boex JR, Grasberger MJ, et al. Systematic review of the literature on assessment, feedback and physicians’ clinical performance: BEME guide no. 7. Med Teach. 2009;28:117–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590600622665.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ende J. Feedback in clinical medical education. JAMA. 1983;250:777–81. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1983.03340060055026.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Edwards MT, Benjamin EM (2009) The process of peer review in US hospitals. J Clin Outcomes Manage.

  5. Schuwirth LWT, van der Vleuten CPM. Programmatic assessment: from assessment of learning to assessment for learning. Med Teach. 2011;33:478–85. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2011.565828.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Force AOAMCMT A Guide to the preparation of the medical student performance evaluation.

  7. EPSTEIN RM, HUNDERT EM, LEACH DC. Defining and assessing professional competence. Editorial JAMA. 2002;287:243–4.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Pettepher CC, Lomis KD, Osheroff N. From theory to practice: utilizing competency-based milestones to assess professional growth and development in the foundational science blocks of a pre-clerkship medical school curriculum. MedSciEduc. 2016;26:491–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-016-0262-7.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Finn GM, Garner J. Twelve tips for implementing a successful peer assessment. Med Teach. 2011;33:443–6. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2010.546909.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ferguson KJ, Kreiter CD. Assessing the relationship between peer and facilitator evaluations in case-based learning. Med Educ. 2007;41:906–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02824.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Shue CK, Arnold L, Stern DT. Maximizing participation in peer assessment of professionalism: the students speak. Acad Med. 2005;80:S1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Burgess A, Mellis C. Receiving feedback from peers: medical students’ perceptions. Clin Teach. 2015;12:203–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/tct.12260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hattie J, Timperley H. The power of feedback. Rev Educ Res. 2016;77:81–112. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Henderson P, Ferguson-Smith AC, Johnson MH. Developing essential professional skills: a framework for teaching and learning about feedback. BMC Med Educ. 2005;5:11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-5-11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Silvia Allikmets JV. Importance of incorporating teaching of feedback skills into medical curricula. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2016;7:257–9. https://doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S107897.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Kruidering-Hall M, O’Sullivan PS, Chou CL. Teaching feedback to first-year medical students: long-term skill retention and accuracy of student self-assessment. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24:721–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-009-0983-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Ramani S, Krackov SK. Twelve tips for giving feedback effectively in the clinical environment. Med Teach. 2012;34:787–91. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2012.684916.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Neville AJ. Problem-based learning and medical education forty years on. A review of its effects on knowledge and clinical performance. Med Princ Pract. 2009;18:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1159/000163038.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Mann K, van der Vleuten C, Eva K, et al. Tensions in informed self-assessment: how the desire for feedback and reticence to collect and use it can conflict. Acad Med. 2011;86:1120–7. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e318226abdd.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Gigante J, Dell M, Sharkey A. Getting beyond “good job”: how to give effective feedback. Pediatrics. 2011;127:205–7. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-3351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Wiggins G (2012) Seven keys to effective feedback 2012.

  22. Dweck CS. Can personality be changed? The role of beliefs in personality and change. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2008;17:391–4. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00612.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Crommelinck M, Anseel F. Understanding and encouraging feedback-seeking behaviour: a literature review. Med Educ. 2013;47:232–41. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12075.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Jahromi VK, Tabatabaee SS, Abdar ZE, Rajabi M. Active listening: the key of successful communication in hospital managers. Electronic Physician. 2016;8:2123–8. 10.19082/2123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Robertson K. Active listening: more than just paying attention. Aust Fam Physician. 2005;34:1053.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Catalano EM. Giving and receiving feedback. Manag Leadersh Skills Med Fac. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-27781-3_3.

Download references

Acknowledgements

1. Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.1 REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) is a secure, web-based application designed to support data capture for research studies, providing (1) an intuitive interface for validated data entry; (2) audit trails for tracking data manipulation and export procedures; (3) automated export procedures for seamless data downloads to common statistical packages; and (4) procedures for importing data from external sources.

1Paul A. Harris, Robert Taylor, Robert Thielke, Jonathon Payne, Nathaniel Gonzalez, Jose G. Conde, Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support, J Biomed Inform. 2009 Apr;42(2):377–81.

2. We would like to thank other CBL facilitators at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine for their feedback and encouragement during the development of this process. In particular, we would like to thank Dr. Tyler Reimschisel for his helpful suggestions and support.

3. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support received through the Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology (RHC), the Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, funded by National Institutes of Health the P30 CA68485 (RHC), National Institutes of Health grant award R01 GM33944 (NO) and US Veterans Administration Merit Review award I01 Bx002198 (NO).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robert H. Carnahan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bird, E.C., Osheroff, N., Pettepher, C.C. et al. Using Small Case-Based Learning Groups as a Setting for Teaching Medical Students How to Provide and Receive Peer Feedback. Med.Sci.Educ. 27, 759–765 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-017-0461-x

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-017-0461-x

Keywords

  • Feedback
  • Case-based learning
  • Pre-clerkship
  • Peer feedback