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Friction and wear behavior of Cu–4 wt.%Ni–TiC composites under dry sliding conditions

Open Access
Research Article


The present study synthesized Cu–4 wt% Ni matrix composites reinforced with different percentages of TiC (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 wt%) through high-energy ball milling, followed by compaction and sintering. The friction and wear behavior was examined at four different normal loads of 5, 10, 15, and 20 N. A constant sliding speed of 1.25 m/s was maintained while sliding against a hardened counterface made of EN31 steel (HRC 60) under ambient conditions using a pin-on-disk test rig. The composite hardness increased until the addition of 4 wt% of TiC, beyond which it was observed to decrease. Such a trend may be attributed to the TiC agglomeration in the composites containing relatively larger amounts of TiC (i.e., 6 and 8 wt%). The wear rate linearly increased with the load. However, the composites exhibited a lower rate of wear than the matrix alloy, which may have resulted from the relatively higher hardness of composites. The observed friction and wear behavior has been explained on the basis of hardness and presence of the transfer layer on the worn surface and its nature, i.e., loose or well compacted. Addition of 4 wt% TiC showed the optimum performance in terms of friction and wear caused by its higher hardness and ability to hold a transfer layer of a relatively larger thickness compared to the other materials. The wear mechanism for the Cu4Ni matrix alloy was a mix of adhesive and oxidative wear and primarily abrasive for the composites containing hard TiC particles.


sliding wear composites TiC particles friction 

Copyright information

© The author(s) 2017

Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University)VaranasiIndia

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