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Friction

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 335–346 | Cite as

Design approach for optimization of a piston ring profile considering mixed lubrication

  • Zhinan Zhang
  • Jun Liu
  • Youbai Xie
Open Access
Research Article

Abstract

To reduce the friction of a piston ring while maintaining a large oil film load-carrying capacity, an approach comprising of the inverse method and the sequential quadratic programming algorithm was proposed. The approach considers the variation of mixed lubrication and variable lubricant viscosity with temperature along the engine stroke, is developed to optimize the profile of a piston ring. A piston ring profile is represented by a polynomial function. A case study of the second piston ring shows that the proposed method can be applied for the optimization of a piston ring profile. In addition, this paper illustrates the effects of the degree of a polynomial function. The results show that the minimization of friction and maximization of oil film load-carrying capacity can be balanced simultaneously when the degree of the polynomial is 2 and 5.

Keywords

piston ring profile inverse method tribology design mixed lubrication hydrodynamic lubrication 

Nomenclature

κ,θ12

Parameters in the Vogel equation

h0

Outlet film thickness

hm

Minimum film thickness

hs

Shoulder length

Ac

Actual contact area

F2.5

Intermediate variable

Fa

Asperity contact friction force

Fe

Piston ring elastic force

Fg

Gas force at inner side of piston ring

Foil

Load-carrying capacity of film

Ft

Total friction force

FV

The viscous shearing force of film

P1

Pressure on the ring

P2

Pressure below the ring

TBDC

The liner temperature at the bottom dead center (BDC)

TMID

The liner temperature at the mid-stroke point (MID)

TTDC

The liner temperature at the top dead center (TDC)

Vp

Piston velocity

Wa

Asperity contact force

p0

Normal gas pressure

α0

Boundary friction coefficient

η0

Viscosity invariant

ηp

Density of asperity

τ0

Constant of shear stress

ϕc

Contact factor

ϕfg

Geometric stress factor

ϕfp

Pressure stress factor

ϕfs

Shear stress factors

ϕs

Shear flow factor

ϕx

Pressure flow factors

A

Area of nominal contact

b

Piston ring width

h

Film thickness

r

Crank speed

ŋ

Lubricant viscosity

σ

Composite roughness

E

Composite elastic modulus of the materials’ contact surface

S

The length of the piston stroke

l

Connecting rod length

p

Oil film pressure

t

Time

x

The piston location downward from TDC

β

Fixed asperity radius of curvature

θ

Crank angle

ω

Angular speed of crankshaft

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51575340 and 51575342), Research Project of State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration (No. MSVZD201104).

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Copyright information

© The author(s) 2016

Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and VibrationShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

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