Multifaceted roles of complementary sequences on circRNA formation
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Circular RNAs (circRNAs) from back-spliced exon(s) are characterized by the covalently closed loop feature with neither 5′ to 3′ polarity nor polyadenylated tail. By using specific computational approaches that identify reads mapped to back-splice junctions with a reversed genomic orientation, ten thousands of circRNAs have been recently re-identified in various cell lines/tissues and across different species. Increasing lines of evidence suggest that back-splicing is catalyzed by the canonical spliceosomal machinery and modulated by cis-elements and trans-factors.
In this mini-review, we discuss our current understanding of circRNA biogenesis regulation, mainly focusing on the complex regulation of complementary sequences, especially Alus in human, on circRNA formation.
KeywordscircRNA circRNA biogenesis back-splicing cis-elements complementary sequences Alu
We are grateful to L.-L.C. for critical reading of this manuscript. We apologize to authors whose work could not be cited here owing to space/ content limitations. Our work is supported by grants 2014CB910601 from MOST and 91540115 and 31471241 from NSFC.
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