Helgerud J, Høydal K, Wang E, et al. Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more than moderate training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(4):665–71.
Buchheit M, Laursen P. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Sports Med. 2013;43:313–38.
Kessler HS, Sisson SB, Short KR. The potential for high-intensity interval training to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk. Sports Med. 2012;42(6):489–509.
Guiraud T, Nigam A, Gremeaux V, et al. High-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. Sports Med. 2012;42(7):587–605.
Hwang CL, Wu YT, Chou CH. Effect of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in people with cardiometabolic disorders: a meta-analysis. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2011;31(6):378–85.
Weston KS, Wisløff U, Coombes JS. High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2013. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092576.
Bacon AP, Carter RE, Ogle EA, et al. VO2max trainability and high intensity interval training in humans: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73182. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073182.
Buchheit M, Laursen PB. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Sports Med. 2013;43:927–54.
Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ, et al. Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol. 2012;590(Pt 5):1077–84.
Sloth M, Sloth D, Overgaard K, et al. Effects of sprint interval training on VO2max and aerobic exercise performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013. doi:10.1111/sms.12092.
Gist NH, Fedewa MV, Dishman RK, et al. Sprint interval training effects on aerobic capacity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(2):269–79.
Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, et al. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):3–12.
Rodas G, Ventura JL, Cadefau JA, et al. A short training programme for the rapid improvement of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;82(5–6):480–6.
Davison RR, Van Someren KA, Jones AM. Physiological monitoring of the Olympic athlete. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(13):1433–42.
Katula JA, Rejeski WJ, Marsh AP. Enhancing quality of life in older adults: a comparison of muscular strength and power training. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;6:45.
Hruda KV, Hicks AL, McCartney N. Training for muscle power in older adults: effects on functional abilities. Can J Appl Physiol. 2003;28(2):178–89.
Vandenbogaerde TJ, Hopkins WG. Effects of acute carbohydrate supplementation on endurance performance: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2011;41(9):773–92.
Carr AJ, Hopkins WG, Gore CJ. Effects of acute alkalosis and acidosis on performance: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2011;41(10):801–14.
Smith TB, Hopkins WG. Variability and predictability of finals times of elite rowers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:2155–60.
Rakobowchuk M, Harris E, Taylor A, et al. Heavy and moderate interval exercise training alters low-flow-mediated constriction but does not increase circulating progenitor cells in healthy humans. Exp Physiol. 2012;97(3):375–85.
Siahkouhian M, Khodadadi D, Shahmoradi K. Effects of high-intensity interval training on aerobic and anaerobic indices: comparison of physical active and inactive men. Sci Sports. 2013;28:e119–25.
Trilk JL, Singhal A, Bigelman KA, et al. Effect of sprint interval training on circulatory function during exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:1591–7.
Allemeier CA, Fry AC, Johnson P, et al. Effects of sprint cycle training on human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 1994;77(5):2385–90.
McKenna MJ, Heigenhauser GJ, McKelvie RS, et al. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men. J Physiol. 1997;501(Pt 3):703–16.
Macpherson RE, Hazell TJ, Olver TD, et al. Run sprint interval training improves aerobic performance but not maximal cardiac output. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:115–22.
Esfandiari S, Sasson Z, Goodman JM. Short-term high-intensity interval and continuous moderate-intensity training improve maximal aerobic power and diastolic filling during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(2):331–43.
Dunham C, Harms CA. Effects of high-intensity interval training on pulmonary function. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:3061–8.
Bayati M, Farzad B, Gharakhanlou R, et al. A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces performance and metabolic adaptations that resemble “all-out” sprint interval training. J Sports Sci Med. 2011;10:571–6.
Whyte LJ, Gill JM, Cathcart AJ. Effect of 2 weeks of sprint interval training on health-related outcomes in sedentary overweight/obese men. Metabolism. 2010;59:1421–8.
Hazell TJ, Macpherson RE, Gravelle BM, et al. 10 or 30-s sprint interval training bouts enhance both aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;110:153–60.
Jacobs RA, Flück D, Bonne TC, et al. Improvements in exercise performance with high-intensity interval training coincide with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115:785–93.
Sharp RL, Costill DL, Fink WJ, et al. Effects of eight weeks of bicycle ergometer sprint training on human muscle buffer capacity. Int J Sports Med. 1986;7(1):13–7.
Barnett C, Carey M, Proietto J, et al. Muscle metabolism during sprint exercise in man: influence of sprint training. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7:314–22.
Harmer AR, Ruell PA, McKenna MJ, et al. Effects of sprint training on extrarenal potassium regulation with intense exercise in Type 1 diabetes. J Appl Physiol. 2006;100(1):26–34.
Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Tipton KD, et al. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training increase net intramuscular triglyceride breakdown and expression of perilipin 2 and 5. J Physiol. 2013;591(3):657–75.
Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, et al. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. J Physiol. 2008;586:151–60.
Bailey SJ, Wilkerson DP, Dimenna FJ, et al. Influence of repeated sprint training on pulmonary O2 uptake and muscle deoxygenation kinetics in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:1875–87.
MacDougall JD, Hicks AL, MacDonald JR, et al. Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training. J Appl Physiol. 1998;84:2138–42.
Tong TK, Chung PK, Leung RW, et al. Effects of non-Wingate-based high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness and aerobic-based exercise capacity in sedentary subjects: a preliminary study. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2011;9(2):75–81.
Esfarjani F, Laursen PB. Manipulating high-intensity interval training: effects on VO2max, the lactate threshold and 3000 m running performance in moderately trained males. J Sci Med Sport. 2007;10(1):27–35.
Burgomaster KA, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ. Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. J Appl Physiol. 2006;100:2041–7.
Astorino TA, Allen RP, Roberson DW, et al. Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular function, VO2max, and muscular force. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:138–45.
Sandvei M, Jeppesen PB, Støen L, et al. Sprint interval running increases insulin sensitivity in young healthy subjects. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2012;118(3):139–47.
Rowan AE, Kueffner TE, Stavrianeas S. Short duration high-intensity interval training improves aerobic conditioning of female college soccer players. Int J Exerc Sci. 2012;5(3):232–8.
Stathis CG, Febbraio MA, Carey MF, et al. Influence of sprint training on human skeletal muscle purine nucleotide metabolism. J Appl Physiol. 1994;76(4):1802–9.
Barnes KR, Hopkins WG, McGuigan MR, et al. Effects of different uphill interval-training programs on running economy and performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:639–47.
Laursen PB, Shing CM, Peake JM, et al. Interval training program optimization in highly trained endurance cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(11):1801–7.
Harmer AR, McKenna MJ, Sutton JR, et al. Skeletal muscle metabolic and ionic adaptations during intense exercise following sprint training in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89(5):1793–803.
Laursen PB, Blanchard MA, Jenkins DG. Acute high-intensity interval training improves Tvent and peak power output in highly trained males. Can J Appl Physiol. 2002;27(4):336–48.
Dalleck L, Bushman TT, Crain RD, et al. Dose–response relationship between interval training frequency and magnitude of improvement in lactate threshold. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(8):567–71.
Iaia FM, Hellsten Y, Nielsen JJ, et al. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(1):73–80.
Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJ, et al. Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98:1985–90.
Forbes SC, Slade JM, Meyer RA. Short-term high-intensity interval training improves phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following moderate-intensity exercise in humans. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008;33(6):1124–31.
Richards JC, Johnson TK, Kuzma JN, et al. Short-term sprint interval training increases insulin sensitivity in healthy adults but does not affect the thermogenic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. J Physiol. 2010;588:2961–72.
Esbjörnsson Liljedahl M, Holm I, Sylvén C, et al. Different responses of skeletal muscle following sprint training in men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;74(4):375–83.
Jansson E, Esbjornsson M, Holm I, et al. Increase in the proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibres by sprint training. Acta Physiol Scand. 1990;140:359–63.
McKenna MJ, Schmidt TA, Hargreaves M, et al. Sprint training increases human skeletal muscle Na+–K+-ATPase concentration and improves K+ regulation. J Appl Physiol. 1993;75(1):173–80.
Gibala MJ, Little JP, van Essen M, et al. Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. J Physiol. 2006;575:901–11.
Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of sport and exercise. 2nd ed. USA: Human Kinetics; 1999.
Buchheit M. Should we be recommending repeated sprints to improve repeated-sprint performance? Sports Med. 2012;42(2):169–72.
Bogdanis GC, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, et al. Contribution of phosphocreatine and aerobic metabolism to energy supply during repeated sprint exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1996;80:876–84.
Bishop D, Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A. Repeated-sprint ability—part II: recommendations for training. Sports Med. 2011;41(9):741–56.
Petkova E, Tarpey T, Huang L, et al. Interpreting meta-regression: application to recent controversies in antidepressants’ efficacy. Stat Med. 2013;32(17):2875–92.
Hawley JA, Gibala MJ. What’s new since Hippocrates? Preventing type 2 diabetes by physical exercise and diet. Diabetologia. 2012;55(3):535–9.
Mujika I. The alphabet of sport science research starts with Q. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:465–6.