Frequency and temperature dependent electrical characteristics of CaTiO3 nano-ceramic prepared by high-energy ball milling
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Nanocrystalline calcium titanate (CT) ceramic has been synthesized by a combination of solid-state reaction and high-energy ball milling. This nano-ceramic is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), dielectric study and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD pattern shows single phase ceramic of orthorhombic symmetry. The frequency-dependent dielectric study shows that the dielectric constant is maximized at low frequencies and decreases with an increase in frequency. Impedance spectroscopy analyses reveal a non-Debye type relaxation phenomenon. A significant shift in impedance loss peaks toward the higher-frequency side indicates conduction in the material favoring the long-range motion of mobile charge carriers. The grain conduction effect is observed from the complex impedance spectrum by the appearance of one semicircular arc in Nyquist plot. It is also observed that the resistance decreases with an increase in temperature showing a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR). Various thermistor parameters have been calculated by fitting with Steinhart-Hart equation. The modulus plots represent the presence of temperature-dependent electrical relaxation phenomenon with the material. The frequency-dependent AC conductivity at different temperatures indicates that the conduction process is thermally activated. The activation energy has been calculated from an Arrhenius plot of DC conductivity and relaxation frequency.
Keywordshigh-energy ball milling dielectric study impedance spectroscopy thermistor conductivity
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Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.