Pillay J, Davis TJ. Physiology, Lactation. StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing; 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 8]; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499981/
• Gooch JC, Chun J, Kaplowitz E, Guth A, Axelrod D, Shapiro R, et al. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer in a contemporary cohort of newly diagnosed women. Breast J. 2020;26:668–71.
• Madaras L, Kovács KA, Szász AM, Kenessey I, Tokés AM, Székely B, et al. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of pregnancy associated breast cancer—a matched case control study. Pathol Oncol Res. 2014;20:581–90.
Kuhl CK, Bieling HB, Gieseke J, Kreft BP, Sommer T, Lutterbey G, et al. Healthy premenopausal breast parenchyma in dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the breast: normal contrast medium enhancement and cyclical-phase dependency. Radiology. 1997;203:137–44.
Müller-Schimpfle M, Ohmenhäuser K, Stoll P, Dietz K, Claussen CD. Menstrual cycle and age: influence on parenchymal contrast medium enhancement in MR imaging of the breast. Radiology. 1997;203:145–9.
Delille JP, Slanetz PJ, Yeh ED, Kopans DB, Garrido L. Physiologic changes in breast magnetic resonance imaging during the menstrual cycle: perfusion imaging, signal enhancement, and influence of the T1 relaxation time of breast tissue. Breast J. 2005;11:236–41.
• Dontchos BN, Rahbar H, Partridge SC, Lehman CD, DeMartini WB. Influence of menstrual cycle timing on screening breast MRI background parenchymal enhancement and diagnostic performance in premenopausal women. J Breast Imaging. 2019;1:205–11.
• Lee CH, Bryce Y, Zheng J, Sung JS, Comstock CE, Moskowitz C, et al. Outcome of screening MRI in premenopausal women as a function of the week of the menstrual cycle. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020;214:1175–81.
Kieturakis AJ, Wahab RA, Vijapura C, Mahoney MC. Current recommendations for breast imaging of the pregnant and lactating patient. Am Roentgen Ray Soc. 2020;216:1462–75.
Patient Safety in Obstetrics and Gynecology |ACOG [Internet]. [cited 2021 Nov 30]. Available from: https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committeeopinion/articles/2009/12/patient-safety-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology
ACR Manual On Contrast Media. 2021; American College of Radiology [Internet], https://www.acr.org/-/media/ACR/Files/Clinical-Resources/Contrast_Media.pdf.
Kubik-Huch RA, Gottstein-Aalame NM, Frenzel T, Seifert B, Puchert E, Wittek S, et al. Gadopentetate dimeglumine excretion into human breast milk during lactation. Radiology. 2000;216:555–8.
• diFlorio-Alexander RM, Slanetz PJ, Moy L, Baron P, Didwania AD, Heller SL, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® breast imaging of pregnant and lactating women. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018;15:S263–75.
• Talele AC, Slanetz PJ, Edmister WB, Yeh ED, Kopans DB. The lactating breast: MRI findings and literature review. Breast J. 2003;9:237–40.
Joshi S, Dialani V, Marotti J, Mehta TS, Slanetz PJ. Breast disease in the pregnant and lactating patient: radiological-pathological correlation. Insights Imaging. 2013;4:527–38.
Sabate JM, Clotet M, Torrubia S, Gomez A, Guerrero R, de Las HP, et al. Radiologic evaluation of breast disorders related to pregnancy and lactation. Radiographics. 2007. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8010003.
Stavros AThomas. Breast ultrasound. Rapp CL, Parker SH, editors. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.
Teberian I, Bhimani C, Sciotto M, Wilkes A, Germaine P. Breast masses in pregnancy and lactation. J Am Osteopath Coll Radiol. 2019;8(8):5–16.
Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast, 5e. 2014.
• Abramson L, Massaro L, Alberty-Oller JJ, Melsaether A. Breast imaging during pregnancy and lactation. J Breast Imaging. 2019;1:342–51.
Canny PF, Berkowitz GS, Kelsey J, Livolsi VA. Fibroadenoma and the use of exogenous hormones. A case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;127:454–61.
Vashi R, Hooley R, Butler R, Geisel J, Philpotts L. Breast imaging of the pregnant and lactating patient: physiologic changes and common benign entities. Am Roentgen Ray Soc. 2013;200:329–36.
Gordon PB, Gagnon FA, Lanzkowsky L. Solid breast masses diagnosed as fibroadenoma at fine-needle aspiration biopsy: acceptable rates of growth at long-term follow-up1. Radiol Soc N Am. 2003;229:233–8.
Basara Akin I, Balci P. Fibroadenomas: a multidisciplinary review of the variants. Clin Imaging. 2021;71:83–100.
de Rosas CHS, de Góes ACA, Saltão LM, da Tanaka AMS, Marques EF, Bitencourt AGV. Pregnancy-lactation cycle: how to use imaging methods for breast evaluation. Radiol Bras. 2020;53:405.
Fukui S, Yamaguchi K, Nakazono T, Egashira R, Nakamura J, Masuda M, et al. Breast MRI findings of fibroadenoma with hemorrhagic infarction. 2018 [cited 2021 Dec 6]; Available from: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0807-4787
• Espinosa LA, Daniel BL, Vidarsson L, Zakhour M, Ikeda DM, Herfkens RJ. The lactating breast: contrast-enhanced MR imaging of normal tissue and cancer. Radiology. 2005;237:429–36.
Magno S, Terribile D, Franceschini G, Fabbri C, Chiesa F, di Leone A, et al. Early onset lactating adenoma and the role of breast MRI: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2009;3:1–5.
Breast adenomas - Hertel - 1976 - Cancer - Wiley Online Library [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 5]. Available from: https://acsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/https://doi.org/10.1002/10970142(197606)37:6%3C2891::AID-CNCR2820370647%3E3.0.CO;2-P
James K, Bridger J, Anthony PP. Breast tumour of pregnancy (“lactating” adenoma). J Pathol. 1988;156:37–44.
Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.
Saglam A, Can B. Coexistence of lactating adenoma and invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the breast in a pregnant woman. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:87.
Geschickter CF. Pregnancy and lactation changes in fibro-adenoma of breast. Br Med J. 1938;1:499.
Kumar H, Narasimha A, Bhaskaran, Divyarani (2015) Concurrent lactating adenoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma: a case report. J Clin Diagn Res; 9:14–15
Hara Y, Yano H, Yamaguchi R, Iwasaki K. Surgical excision of a lactating adenoma with rapid enlargement: a case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2021;89:106544.
Parnes AN, Akalin A, Quinlan RM, Vijayaraghavan GR, History M, Adenoma L. BREAST IMAGING AIRP best cases in radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2013;33:455–9.
Chico MJ, Causa Andrieu PI, Wernicke A, Pesce K. Breast lactating adenoma, an example of the utility of the radiological-pathological correlation. Clin Imaging. 2021;71:136–40.
Helvie MA, Adler DD, Rebner M, Oberman HA. Breast hamartomas: variable mammographic appearance. Radiology. 1989;170:417–21.
Langer A, Mohallem M, Berment H, Ferreira F, Gog A, Khalifa D, et al. Breast lumps in pregnant women. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2015;96:1077–87.
Mohamed A. Breast hamartoma: unusual radiological presentation. Radiol Case Rep. 2020;15:2714.
Nam SY, Han B-K, Lee S, Lee K. MR findings of hamartoma of the breast: a report of two cases. J Korean Soc Magn Reson Med. 2012;16:271–5.
Cucci E, Santoro A, di Gesú C, Ciuffreda M, Maselli G, Pierro A, et al. Integrated imaging of breast hamartoma: two case reports. Breast Dis. 2015;35:53–7.
Kievit HCE, Sikkenk AC, Thelissen GRP, Merchants TE. Magnetic Resonance Image Appearance of Hamartoma of the Breast. Magnetic Resonance Imaging; 11(2): 1993;293–8.
Erdem G, Karakaş HM, Işik B, Firat AK. Advanced MRI findings in patients with breast hamartomas. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2011;17:33–7.
Petrek JA. Breast cancer during pregnancy. Cancer. 1994;74:518–27.
• Stensheim H, Møller B, van Dijk T, Fosså SD. Cause-specific survival for women diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy or lactation: a registry-based cohort study. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:45–51.
Andersson TML, Johansson ALV, Hsieh CC, Cnattingius S, Lambe M. Increasing incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer in Sweden. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:568–72.
Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2016 - SEER Statistics. [cited 2019 Dec 21]. Available from: https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2016/
Albrektsen G, Heuch I, Hansen S, Kvåle G. Breast cancer risk by age at birth, time since birth and time intervals between births: exploring interaction effects. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:167–75.
• Myers KS, Green LA, Lebron L, Morris EA. Imaging appearance and clinical impact of preoperative breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer. American Roentgen Ray Society. 2017;209:W177–83.
• Hartman EK, Eslick GD. The prognosis of women diagnosed with breast cancer before, during and after pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016;160:347–60.
Reed W, Hannisdal E, Skovlund E, Thoresen S, Lilleng P, Nesland JM. Pregnancy and breast cancer: a population-based study. Virchows Arch. 2003;443:44–50.
Barnes DM, Newman LA. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a literature review. Surg Clin North Am. 2007;87:417–30.
Stensheim H, Møller B, van Dijk T, Fosså SD. Cause-specific survival for women diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy or lactation: a registry-based cohort study. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:45–51.
• Arasu VA, Kannan N, Krishnarao PM, Kuehner G, Kuan MC, Kim JC, et al. Imaging the breast in pregnant or lactating women. Curr Radiol Rep. 2018;6:1–10.
• Nissan N, Allweis T, Menes T, Brodsky A, Paluch-Shimon S, Haas I, et al. Breast MRI during lactation: effects on tumor conspicuity using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) in comparison with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parametric maps. Eur Radiol. 2020;30:767–77.
Myers KS, Green LA, Lebron L, Morris EA. Imaging appearance and clinical impact of preoperative breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017;209:W177–83.
• Taylor D, Lazberger J, Ives A, Wylie E, Saunders C. Reducing delay in the diagnosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer: how imaging can help us. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2011;55:33–42.
Boivin G, de Korvin B, Marion J, Duvauferrier R. Is a breast MRI possible and indicated in case of suspicion of breast cancer during lactation? Diagn Interv Imaging. 2012;93(11):823–7.
• Taron J, Fleischer S, Preibsch H, Nikolaou K, Gruber I, Bahrs S. Background parenchymal enhancement in pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a hindrance to diagnosis? Eur Radiol. 2019;29:1187–93.
• Sah RG, Agarwal K, Sharma U, Parshad R, Seenu V, Jagannathan NR. Characterization of malignant breast tissue of breast cancer patients and the normal breast tissue of healthy lactating women volunteers using diffusion MRI and in vivo 1H MR spectroscopy. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2015;41:169–74.
• Oh SW, Lim HS, Moon SM, Kim JW, Shin SS, Heo SH, Lee JS, Park MH. MR imaging characteristics of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation. Br J Radiol. 2017;90(1078):20170203.
Carmichael H, Matsen C, Freer P, Kohlmann W, Stein M, Buys SS, Colonna S. Breast cancer screening of pregnant and breastfeeding women with BRCA mutations. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017;162(2):225–30.
Schackmuth EM, Harlow CL, Norton LW. Milk fistula: a complication after core breast biopsy. American Public Health Association. 2013;161:961–2.
Gupta RK, McHutchison AGR, Dowle CS, Simpson JS. Fine-needle aspiration cytodiagnosis of breast masses in pregnant and lactating women and its impact on management. Diagnostic cytopathology [Internet]. Diagn Cytopathol; 1993;9:156–9
Grenko RT, Lee KP, Lee KR. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lactating adenoma of the breast. A comparative light microscopic and morphometric study. Acta Cytol. 34:21–6.
Novotny DB, Maygarden SJ, Shermer RW, Frable WJ. Fine needle aspiration of benign and malignant breast masses associated with pregnancy. Acta Cytol. 1991;35:676–86.
Mitre BK, Kanbour AI, Mauser N. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of breast carcinoma in pregnancy and lactation. Acta Cytol. 1997;41:1121–30.
Shabb NS, Boulos FI, Abdul-Karim FW. Indeterminate and erroneous fine-needle aspirates of breast with focus on the ‘True Gray Zone’’: a review’. Acta Cytol. 2013;57:316–31.