Manchikanti L, Helm S 2nd, Fellows B, et al. Opioid epidemic in the United States. Pain Physician. 2012;15[3 Suppl]:ES9–38.
Rudd RA, Aleshire N, Zibbell JE, Gladden RM. Increases in drug and opioid overdose deaths-United States, 2000–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;64(50–51):1378–82.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. 2012. http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.pdf. Accessed 9 Aug 2013.
Jones CM. Heroin use and heroin use risk behaviors among nonmedical users of prescription opioid pain relievers—United States, 2002–2004 and 2008–2010. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;132(1–2):95–100.
Karakula SL, Weiss RD, Griffin ML, Borges AM, Bailey AJ, McHugh RK. Delay discounting in opioid use disorder: differences between heroin and prescription opioid users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016;169:68–72.
Florence CS, Zhou C, Luo F, Xu L. The economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence in the United States, 2013. Med Care. 2016;54(10):901–6.
Manchikanti L, Boswell MV, Hirsch JA. Lessons learned in the abuse of pain-relief medication: a focus on healthcare costs. Expert Rev Neurother. 2013;13(5):527–43 (quiz 544).
Garde D. Trump is ‘doubling down’ on the opioid crisis with promises of expanded treatment. 2016. October 15, 2016: https://www.statnews.com/2016/10/15/trump-opioid-expanded-treatment/. Accessed 10 Dec 2016.
McDonald DC, Carlson K, Izrael D. Geographic variation in opioid prescribing in the U.S. J Pain. 2012;13(10):988–96.
Beaudoin FL, Banerjee GN, Mello MJ. State-level and system-level opioid prescribing policies: the impact on provider practices and overdose deaths, a systematic review. J Opioid Manag. 2016;12(2):109–18.
Cleary J, Simha N, Panieri A, et al. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in India: a report from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI). Ann Oncol ESMO. 2013;24[Suppl 11]:xi33–40.
Cleary J, De Lima L, Eisenchlas J, Radbruch L, Torode J, Cherny NI. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in Latin America and the Caribbean: a report from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI). Ann Oncol ESMO. 2013;24[Suppl 11]:xi41–50.
Cleary J, Powell RA, Munene G, et al. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in Africa: a report from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI). Ann Oncol ESMO. 2013;24[Suppl 11]:xi14–23.
Cleary J, Silbermann M, Scholten W, Radbruch L, Torode J, Cherny NI. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in the Middle East: a report from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI). Ann Oncol ESMO. 2013;24[Suppl 11]:xi51–9.
Cleary J, Radbruch L, Torode J, Cherny NI. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in Asia: a report from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI). Ann Oncol ESMO. 2013;24[Suppl 11]:xi24–32.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO’s pain ladder for adults. 1988. http://www.who.int/cancer/palliative/painladder/en/. Accessed 7 May 2013.
Daher M. Pain relief is a human right. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11[Suppl 1]:97–101.
International Pain Summit of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Declaration of Montreal: declaration that access to pain management is a fundamental human right. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2011;25(1):29–31.
Ossipov MH, Dussor GO, Porreca F. Central modulation of pain. J Clin Investig. 2010;120(11):3779–87.
Fornasari D. Pain mechanisms in patients with chronic pain. Clin Drug Investig. 2012;32[Suppl 1]:45–52.
Inturrisi CE. Clinical pharmacology of opioids for pain. Clin J Pain. 2002;18[4 Suppl]:S3–13.
Raffa RB. On subclasses of opioid analgesics. Curr Med Res Opin. 2014;30(12):2579–84.
Zhang M, Wang X, Zhang D, et al. Orphanin FQ antagonizes the inhibition of Ca(2+) currents induced by mu-opioid receptors. J Mol Neurosci. 2005;25(1):21–7.
Thompson GL, Lane JR, Coudrat T, Sexton PM, Christopoulos A, Canals M. Biased agonism of endogenous opioid peptides at the mu-opioid receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2015;88(2):335–46.
Bannister K, Dickenson AH. What do monoamines do in pain modulation? Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2016;10(2):143–8.
Blier P. Crosstalk between the norepinephrine and serotonin systems and its role in the antidepressant response. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001;26[Suppl]:S3–10.
Pergolizzi JV Jr, Raffa RB, Taylor R Jr. Treating acute pain in light of the chronification of pain. Pain Manag Nurs. 2014;15(1):380–90.
Ballantyne JC, Mao J. Opioid therapy for chronic pain. New Engl J Med. 2003;349(20):1943–53.
Joo DT. Mechanisms of opioid tolerance: merging evidence and therapeutic implications. Can J Anaesth. 2007;54(12):969–76.
Chang G, Chen L, Mao J. Opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia. Med Clin N Am. 2007;91(2):199–211.
Lynch ME. Antidepressants as analgesics: a review of randomized controlled trials. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001;26(1):30–6.
Mercer SL, Coop A. Opioid analgesics and P-glycoprotein efflux transporters: a potential systems-level contribution to analgesic tolerance. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11(9):1157–64.
Lalovic B, Kharasch E, Hoffer C, Risler L, Liu-Chen LY, Shen DD. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral oxycodone in healthy human subjects: role of circulating active metabolites. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;79(5):461–79.
Okura T, Hattori A, Takano Y, et al. Involvement of the pyrilamine transporter, a putative organic cation transporter, in blood–brain barrier transport of oxycodone. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36(10):2005–13.
Raffa RB, Clark-Vetri R, Tallarida RJ, Wertheimer AI. Combination strategies for pain management. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003;4(10):1697–708.
Kenakin T, Christopoulos A. Signalling bias in new drug discovery: detection, quantification and therapeutic impact. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013;12(3):205–16.
Raffa RB, Budd K. Buprenorphine—the unique opioid analgesic. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag; 2005.
Pergolizzi J, Aloisi AM, Dahan A, et al. Current knowledge of buprenorphine and its unique pharmacological profile. Pain Pract. 2010;10(5):428–50.
Lutfy K, Cowan A. Buprenorphine: a unique drug with complex pharmacology. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2004;2(4):395–402.
Cowan A. Buprenorphine: new pharmacological aspects. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2003;133:3–8 (discussion 23-24).
Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. Factors contributing to the rise of buprenorphine misuse: 2008–2013. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;142:98–104.
Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Suboxone versus methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence: a review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. 2013.
Raffa RB. A novel approach to the pharmacology of analgesics. Am J Med. 1996;101(1A):40S–6S.
Nakajima K, Obata H, Iriuchijima N, Saito S. An increase in spinal cord noradrenaline is a major contributor to the antihyperalgesic effect of antidepressants after peripheral nerve injury in the rat. Pain. 2012;153(5):990–7.
Stein C. The control of pain in peripheral tissue by opioids. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(25):1685–90.
Raffa RB, Friderichs E, Reimann W, et al. Complementary and synergistic antinociceptive interaction between the enantiomers of tramadol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993;267(1):331–40.
Raffa RB. Basic pharmacology relevant to drug abuse assessment: tramadol as example. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2008;33(2):101–8.
Raffa RB, Buschmann H, Christoph T, et al. Mechanistic and functional differentiation of tapentadol and tramadol. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012;13(10):1437–49.
Schroder W, Tzschentke TM, Terlinden R, et al. Synergistic interaction between the two mechanisms of action of tapentadol in analgesia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;337(1):312–20.
Kress HG. Tapentadol and its two mechanisms of action: is there a new pharmacological class of centrally-acting analgesics on the horizon? Eur J Pain. 2010;14(8):781–3.
Linz K, Christoph T, Tzschentke TM, et al. Cebranopadol: a novel potent analgesic nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide and opioid receptor agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014;349(3):535–48.
Raffa RB, Pergolizzi JV Jr. A modern analgesics pain ‘pyramid’. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014;39(1):4–6.
Marinangeli F, Ciccozzi A, Leonardis M, et al. Use of strong opioids in advanced cancer pain: a randomized trial. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2004;27(5):409–16.
Foster A, Mobley E, Wang Z. Complicated pain management in a CYP450 2D6 poor metabolizer. Pain Pract. 2007;7(4):352–6.
Haufroid V, Hantson P. CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms and their relevance for poisoning due to amfetamines, opioid analgesics and antidepressants. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2015;53(6):501–10.
Mikus G, Somogyi AA, Bochner F, Chen ZR. Polymorphic metabolism of opioid narcotic drugs: possible clinical implications. Ann Acad Med Singap. 1991;20(1):9–12.
Nalamachu SR. Opioid rotation in clinical practice. Adv Ther. 2012;29(10):849–63.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Adult cancer pain. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines) 2014; Version 2.2014. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/PDF/pain.pdf. Accessed 4 July 2014.
Caraceni A. The EPCRC project to revise the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) guidelines on the use of opioids for cancer pain. Palliat Med. 2011;25(5):389–90.
Caraceni A, Davies A, Poulain P, Cortes-Funes H, Panchal SJ, Fanelli G. Guidelines for the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw. 2013;11[Suppl 1]:S29–36.
Caraceni A, De Conno F, Kaasa S, Radbruch L, Hanks G. Update on cancer pain guidelines. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2009;38(3):e1–3.
Chou R. 2009 Clinical guidelines from the American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine on the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain: what are the key messages for clinical practice? Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2009;119(7–8):469–77.
Ansari H, Kouti L. Drug interaction and serotonin toxicity with opioid use: another reason to avoid opioids in headache and migraine treatment. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2016;20(8):50.
Stein C, Baerwald C. Opioids for the treatment of arthritis pain. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014;15(2):193–202.
Watson CP. Opioids in chronic noncancer pain: more faces from the crowd. Pain Res Manag. 2012;17(4):263–75.
Cheatle MD, O’Brien CP. Opioid therapy in patients with chronic noncancer pain: diagnostic and clinical challenges. Adv Psychosom Med. 2011;30:61–91.
Stein C, Reinecke H, Sorgatz H. Opioid use in chronic noncancer pain: guidelines revisited. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2010;23(5):598–601.
Zhang W, Doherty M, Arden N, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hip osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64(5):669–81.
Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part II: management. Report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65(10):1312–24.
Zhang W, Doherty M, Leeb BF, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hand osteoarthritis: report of a Task Force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66(3):377–88.
Zhang W, Moskowitz RW, Nuki G, et al. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2008;16(2):137–62.
Collett B-J. Opioid tolerance: the clinical perspective. Br J Anaesth. 1998;81:58–68.
Weissman DE, Haddox JD. Opioid pseudoaddiction—an iatrogenic syndrome. Pain. 1989;36(3):363–6.
Bell K, Salmon A. Pain, physical dependence and pseudoaddiction: redefining addiction for ‘nice’ people? Int J Drug Policy. 2009;20(2):170–8.
Miyoshi H, Leckband S. Bonica’s management of pain. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.
Kirsh KL, Whitcomb LA, Donaghy K, Passik SD. Abuse and addiction issues in medically ill patients with pain: attempts at clarification of terms and empirical study. Clin J Pain. 2002;18[4 Suppl]:S52–60.
Cepeda-Benito A, Davis K, Harraid J. Associative and behavioral tolerance to the analgesic effects of nicotine in rats: tail flick and paw-lick assays. Psychopharmacology. 2005;180:224–33.
Manchikanti L, Abdi S, Atluri S, et al. American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) guidelines for responsible opioid prescribing in chronic non-cancer pain: Part 2-guidance. Pain Physician. 2012;15[3 Suppl]:S67–116.
Smith HS, Smith JM, Seidner P. Opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Ann Palliat Med. 2012;1(2):121–9.
Laugsand E, Fladvad T, Skorpen F, et al. Clinical and genetic factors associated with nausea and vomiting in cancer patients receiving opioids. Eur J Cancer Care. 2011;47:1682–91.
Pergolizzi JV Jr, Philip BK, Leslie JB, Taylor R Jr, Raffa RB. Perspectives on transdermal scopolamine for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Clin Anesth. 2012;24(4):334–45.
Ebata T. Drug-induced itch management. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2016;50:155–63.
Hermens J, Ebertz J, Hanifin J, Hirshman C. Comparison of histamine release in human skin mast cells induced by morphine, fentanyl, and oxymorphone. Anesthesiology. 1985;62(2):124–9.
Ko MC. Neuraxial opioid-induced itch and its pharmacological antagonism. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2015;226:315–35.
Ganesh A, Maxwell L. Pathophysiology and management of opioid-induced pruritus. Drugs. 2007;67(16):2323–33.
Bruera E, Miller M, Macmillan K, Kuehn N. Neuropsychological effects of methylphenidate in patients receiving a continuous infusion of narcotics for cancer pain. Pain. 1992;48(2):163–6.
Wilwerding MB, Loprinzi CL, Mailliard JA, et al. A randomized, crossover evaluation of methylphenidate in cancer patients receiving strong narcotics. Support Care Cancer. 1995;3(2):135–8.
Webster L, Andrews M, Stoddard G. Modafinil treatment of opioid-induced sedation. Pain Med. 2003;4(2):135–40.
Stone P, Minton O. European Palliative Care Research collaborative pain guidelines. Central side-effects management: what is the evidence to support best practice in the management of sedation, cognitive impairment and myoclonus? Palliat Med. 2011;25(5):431–41.
Nuckols TK, Anderson L, Popescu I, et al. Opioid prescribing: a systematic review and critical appraisal of guidelines for chronic pain. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(1):38–47.
Neumar RW, Shuster M, Callaway CW, et al. Part 1: Executive summary: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2015;132[18 Suppl 2]:S315–67.
Jones JD, Mogali S, Comer SD. Polydrug abuse: a review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;125(1–2):8–18.
Al-Hasani R, Bruchas MR. Molecular mechanisms of opioid receptor-dependent signaling and behavior. Anesthesiology. 2011;115(6):1363–81.
Verhamme KM, Sturkenboom MC, Stricker BH, Bosch R. Drug-induced urinary retention: incidence, management and prevention. Drug Saf Drug Exp. 2008;31(5):373–88.
Marret E, Kurdi O, Zufferey P, Bonnet F. Effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on patient-controlled analgesia morphine side effects: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 2005;102(6):1249–60.
Webster LR. Opioid-induced constipation. Pain Med. 2015;16[Suppl 1]:S16–21.
Bell TJ, Panchal SJ, Miaskowski C, Bolge SC, Milanova T, Williamson R. The prevalence, severity, and impact of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction: results of a US and European Patient Survey (PROBE 1). Pain Med. 2009;10(1):35–42.
Bell T, Annunziata K, Leslie JB. Opioid-induced constipation negatively impacts pain management, productivity, and health-related quality of life: findings from the National Health and Wellness Survey. J Opioid Manag. 2009;5(3):137–44.
Hess B, Bernardi M, Klotz HP. Attitude of Swiss physicians towards opioid-induced constipation: a national survey. Eur J Intern Med. 2011;22(5):527–31.
Hjalte F, Berggren AC, Bergendahl H, Hjortsberg C. The direct and indirect costs of opioid-induced constipation. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;40(5):696–703.
Holzer P. Opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. Regul Pept. 2009;155(1–3):11–7.
Wood JD, Galligan JJ. Function of opioids in the enteric nervous system. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2004;16[Suppl 2]:17–28.
Tassinari D, Sartori S, Tamburini E, et al. Adverse effects of transdermal opiates treating moderate-severe cancer pain in comparison to long-acting morphine: a meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature. J Palliat Med. 2008;11(3):492–501.
Kokki M, Kuronen M, Naaranlahti T, et al. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in patients undergoing spine surgery: comparison of oxycodone and oxycodone-naloxone treatment. Adv Ther. 2017;34(1):236–51
Viscusi ER, Grond S, Ding L, Danesi H, Jones JB, Sinatra RS. A comparison of opioid-related adverse events with fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system versus morphine intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in acute postoperative pain. Pain Manag. 2016;6(1):19–24.
Pergolizzi JV Jr, Scholten W, Smith KJ, Leighton-Scott J, Willis JC, Henningfield JE. The unique role of transdermal buprenorphine in the global chronic pain epidemic. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2015;53(2):71–6.
Tarumi Y, Wilson MP, Szafran O, Spooner GR. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral docusate in the management of constipation in hospice patients. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2013;45(1):2–13.
Anantharamu T, Sharma S, Gupta AK, Dahiya N, Singh Brashier DB, Sharma AK. Naloxegol: first oral peripherally acting mu opioid receptor antagonists for opioid-induced constipation. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2015;6(3):188–92.
Li Z, Pergolizzi JV, Huttner RP, Zampogna G, Breve F, Raffa RB. Management of opioid-induced constipation in pregnancy: a concise review with emphasis on the PAMORAs. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2015;40(6):615–9.
Diego L, Atayee R, Helmons P, Hsiao G, von Gunten CF. Novel opioid antagonists for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2011;20(8):1047–56.
Belavic JM. Methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation. Nurse Pract. 2009;34(3):6–7.
Davis M, Goforth HW, Gamier P. Oxycodone combined with opioid receptor antagonists: efficacy and safety. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2013;12(3):389–402.
Katz N, Mazer N. The impact of opioids on the endocrine system. Clin J Pain. 2009;25:170–5.
Birthi P, Nagar VR, Nickerson R, Sloan PA. Hypogonadism associated with long-term opioid therapy: A systematic review. J Opioid Manag. 2015;11(3):255–78.
Colameco S, Coren J. Opioid-induced endocrinopathy. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2009;109:20–5.
Walsh SL, Nuzzo PA, Lofwall MR, Holtman JR Jr. The relative abuse liability of oral oxycodone, hydrocodone and hydromorphone assessed in prescription opioid abusers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;98(3):191–202.
Pergolizzi JV, Raffa RB, Pergolizzi JS, Taylor R. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: factors relevant to opioid abuse and abuse-deterrent formulations. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(37):6109–15.
Garland EL, Froeliger B, Zeidan F, Suveg K, Howard MO. The downward spiral of chronic pain, prescription opioid misuse, and addiction: cognitive, affective, and neuropsychopharmacologic pathways. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013; 37(10). doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.08.006.
Cheatle MD. Prescription opioid misuse, abuse, morbidity, and mortality: balancing effective pain management and safety. Pain Med. 2015;16[Suppl 1]:S3–8.
Pergolizzi JV Jr, Gharibo C, Passik S, et al. Dynamic risk factors in the misuse of opioid analgesics. J Psychosom Res. 2012;72(6):443–51.
Boscarino JA, Kirchner HL, Pitcavage JM, et al. Factors associated with opioid overdose: a 10-year retrospective study of patients in a large integrated health care system. Subst Abus Rehabil. 2016;7:131–41.
Dunn KE, Barrett FS, Yepez-Laubach C, et al. Opioid overdose experience, risk behaviors, and knowledge in drug users from a rural versus an urban setting. J Subst Abus Treat. 2016;71:1–7.
Peck KR, Ehrentraut JH, Anghelescu DL. Risk factors for opioid misuse in adolescents and young adults with focus on oncology setting. J Opioid Manag. 2016;12(3):205–16.
Ihongbe TO, Masho SW. Prevalence, correlates and patterns of heroin use among young adults in the United States. Addict Behav. 2016;63:74–81.
Dale R, Edwards J, Ballantyne J. Opioid risk assessment in palliative medicine. J Commun Support Oncol. 2016;14(3):94–100.
American Society of Addiction Medicine. Definition of addiction. Qual Pract. 2016. http://www.asam.org/quality-practice/definition-of-addiction. Accessed 26 April 2016.
Katz N, Adams E, Benneyan J, et al. Foundations of opioid risk management. Clin J Pain. 2007;23:103–18.
Ahlbeck K. Opioids: a two-faced Janus. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27(2):439–48.
Chang YP, Compton P. Opioid misuse/abuse and quality persistent pain management in older adults. J Gerontol Nurs. 2016;42(12):21–30.
Kristjansson S, McCutcheon VV, Agrawal A, et al. The variance shared across forms of childhood trauma is strongly associated with liability for psychiatric and substance use disorders. Brain Behav. 2016;6(2):e00432.
Peles E, Adelson M, Seligman Z, Bloch M, Potik D, Schreiber S. Psychiatric comorbidity differences between women with history of childhood sexual abuse who are methadone-maintained former opiate addicts and non-addicts. Psychiatry Res. 2014;219(1):191–7.
Massaly N, Moron JA, Al-Hasani R. A trigger for opioid misuse: chronic pain and stress dysregulate the mesolimbic pathway and kappa opioid system. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:480.
Mitsi V, Zachariou V. Modulation of pain, nociception, and analgesia by the brain reward center. Neuroscience. 2016;338:81–92.
Navratilova E, Morimura K, Xie JY, Atcherley CW, Ossipov MH, Porreca F. Positive emotions and brain reward circuits in chronic pain. J Comp Neurol. 2016;524(8):1646–52.
Inagaki TK, Ray LA, Irwin MR, Way BM, Eisenberger NI. Opioids and social bonding: naltrexone reduces feelings of social connection. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016;11(5):728–35.
Setnik B, Roland CL, Pixton G, Webster L. Measurement of drug liking in abuse potential studies: a comparison of unipolar and bipolar visual analog scales. J Clin Pharmacol. 2016; 57(2):266–74.
Pergolizzi JV Jr, LeQuang JA. Abuse-deterrent formulations of opioid analgesics. Pain Pract. 2014;14(3):204–6.
Ruan X. Sustained-release morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone for moderate to severe pain: a new opioid analgesic formulation and beyond. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12(7):999–1001.
Federal Drug Administration (FDA). Guidance for Industry: abuse-deterrent opioids, evaluation and labeling. 2013. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM334743.pdf. Accessed 25 April 2013.