World Health Organization. Global influenza strategy. 2020. https://www.who.int/news/item/11-03-2019-who-launches-new-global-influenza-strategy. Accessed 3 Nov 2020.
World Health Organization. Influenza (Seasonal). Fact sheet. 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(seasonal). Accessed 30 Nov 2020.
Luliano AD, Roguski KM, Chang HH, et al. Estimates of global seasonal influenza-associated respiratory mortality: a modelling study. Lancet. 2018;391:1285–300.
Caini S, El-Guerche Séblain C, Ciblak MA, Paget J. Epidemiology of seasonal influenza in the Middle East and North Africa regions, 2010–2016: circulating influenza A and B viruses and spatial timing of epidemics. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018;12:344–52.
Fiore AE, Shay DK, Broder K, et al. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. MMWR Recommend Rep. 2009;58:1–52.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2224–60.
Ben Abdallah FC, Taktak S, Chtourou A, Mahouachi R, Kheder AB. Burden of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). World Allergy Org J. 2011;4:S6-8.
Macias AE, McElhaney JE, Chaves SS, et al. The disease burden of influenza beyond respiratory illness. Vaccine. 2021;39 Suppl 1:A6–A14.
Krammer F, Smith GJD, Fouchier RAM, et al. Influenza. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018;4:3.
Enhancing influenza surveillance in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Eastern Mediterranean Acute Respiratory Infection Surveillance (EMARIS) network—third inter-country meeting. East Mediterr Health J. 2016;22:560–1.
Abubakar A, Barakat A, Ahmed A, et al. Fourth meeting of the Eastern Mediterranean Acute Respiratory Infection Surveillance (EMARIS) network and first scientific conference on acute respiratory infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 11–14 December, 2017, Amman, Jordan. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13:451–6.
World Health Organization. Influenza. Global influenza surveillance and response system (GISRS). FluNet. 2020. https://www.who.int/influenza/gisrs_laboratory/flunet/en/. Accessed 02 Nov 2020.
Kandeel A, Dawson P, Labib M, et al. Morbidity, mortality, and seasonality of influenza hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161301-e.
Al-Abdallat M, Dawson P, Haddadin AJ, et al. Influenza hospitalization epidemiology from a severe acute respiratory infection surveillance system in Jordan, January 2008-February 2014. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2016;10:91–7.
Gouya M, Rezaei F, Haghdoost A, et al. Estimation of influenza and severe acute respiratory illness incidence (burden) in three provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2012 and 2013. East Mediterr Health J. 2016;22:432–9.
Al Khatib HA, Al Thani AA, Gallouzi I, Yassine HM. Epidemiological and genetic characterization of pH1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses circulated in MENA region during 2009–2017. BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19:314.
Elhakim M, Hafiz Rasooly M, Fahim M, et al. Epidemiology of severe cases of influenza and other acute respiratory infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, July 2016 to June 2018. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13:423–9.
Albogami SS, Alotaibi MR, Alsahli SA, Masuadi E, Alshaalan M. Seasonal variations of respiratory viruses detected from children with respiratory tract infections in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2018;11:183–6.
Cohen JM, Silva ML, Caini S, et al. Striking similarities in the presentation and duration of illness of influenza A and B in the community: a study based on sentinel surveillance networks in France and Turkey, 2010–2012. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0139431.
Tarek D, Imad C, Imane E, et al. Severe acute respiratory infections of viral origin in Moroccan medical ICU: Incidence and prognostic factors. Ann Intensive Care. 2018;2018:8.
World Health Organization. WHO surveillance case definitions for ILI and SARI. 2020. https://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/ili_sari_surveillance_case_definition/en/. Accessed 30 Oct 2020.
Affifi RM, Omar SRA. A novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak experience among residents of a long term-care facility in Saudi Arabia during 2010 seasonal flu circulation. Infect Dis Rep. 2012;4:84–9.
Moattari A, Ashrafi H, Kadivar MR, et al. Antigenic variations of human influenza virus in Shiraz, Iran. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2010;28:114–9.
Tannous J, Zahreddine NK, Attieh RM, Mezher H, Kanafani Z, Kanj S. Influenza A outbreak in a hemodialysis unit at a tertiary care center in Lebanon. Antimicrobial Resistance Infect Control. 2019;2019:8.
Mohamed AG, BinSaeed AA, Al-Habib H, Al-Saif H. Communicability of H1N1 and seasonal influenza among household contacts of cases in large families. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012;6:e25–9.
El Rhaffouli H, El Boukhrissi F, Bajjou T, et al. Seroprevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 in two regions in Morocco following the 2010–2011 influenza season. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2013;61:83–6.
Mese S, Uyanik A, Ozakay A, Ozturk S, Badur S. Influenza surveillance in Western Turkey in the era of quadrivalent vaccines: a 2003–2016 retrospective analysis. Hum Vaccines Immunother. 2018;2018:1–29.
Al-Awaidy S, Hamid S, Al-Obaidani I, et al. The burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations in Oman, January 2008–June 2013. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144186.
Chlif S, Aissi W, Bettaieb J, et al. Modelling of seasonal influenza and estimation of the burden in Tunisia. East Mediterr Health J. 2016;22:460–7.
Reaves EJ, Mansour A, Mansour H, et al. Epidemiology of influenza among severe acute respiratory infections-damanhour, Egypt, 2009–2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;95:393.
Rowlinson E, Dueger E, Mansour A, et al. Incidence and etiology of hospitalized acute respiratory infections in the Egyptian Delta. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2017;11:23–32.
Al Salman J, Alsharbati W, Hajeri M, Abdalla M, Hassan E, Alzaimoor K. Adult cases of H1N1 influenza admitted from 2015 to 2016. Bahrain Med Bull. 2018;40:145–9.
Makvandi M, Alvandi A, Aryan E, et al. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with Influenza a h1n1 in Khuzestan, Iran during July 2009–April 2010. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013;2013:6.
Bouneb R, Mellouli M, Bensoltane H, et al. Characteristics and outcome of ill critical patients with influenza A infection. Pan Afr Med J. 2018;2018:29.
Ersoy AO, Unlu S, Oztas E, Ozler S, Uygur D, Yucel A. Influenza infections in the 2014–2015 season and pregnancy outcomes. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2017;11:766–71.
Tinsa F, Barakizou H, Belhadj I, et al. Influenza A/H1N1 pdm 09 in children’s Hospital Bechir Hamza of Tunis. Tunis Med. 2018;96:348–52.
Ünver E, KarakeçiliA F, Çıkman A. Assessment of viral and atypical bacterial agents using polymerase chain reaction in patients presenting with signs of acute respiratory tract infection. West Indian Med J. 2018;67:298–303.
World Health Organization. Vaccines against influenza WHO position paper—November 2012. Releve Epidemiol Hebdomadaire. 2012;87:461–76.
World Health Organization. A manual for estimating disease burden associated with seasonal influenza. 2021. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/178801/1/9789241549301_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1. Accessed 02 Feb 2021.
Al Awaidi S, Abusrewil S, AbuHasan M, et al. Influenza vaccination situation in Middle-East and North Africa countries: report of the 7th MENA influenza stakeholders network (MENA-ISN). J Infect Public Health. 2018;11:845–50.
Newman LP, Bhat N, Fleming JA, Neuzil KM. Global influenza seasonality to inform country-level vaccine programs: an analysis of WHO FluNet influenza surveillance data between 2011 and 2016. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0193263-e.
Khan W, El Rifay AS, Malik M, Kayali G. Influenza research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a review. Oman Med J. 2017;32:359–64.
Moghoofei M, Monavari SH, Mostafaei S, et al. Prevalence of influenza A infection in the Middle-East: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Respir J. 2018;12:1787–801.
Caini S, Kusznierz G, Garate VV, et al. The epidemiological signature of influenza B virus and its B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in the 21st century. PLoS ONE. 2019;14:e0222381.
Tokars JI, Olsen SJ, Reed C. Seasonal incidence of symptomatic influenza in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66:1511–8.
Baselga-Moreno V, Trushakova S, McNeil S, et al. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2016–2017 season in the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN). BMC Public Health. 2019;19:487.
Puig-Barberà J, Burtseva E, Yu H, et al. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014–2015 season: annual report from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(Suppl 1):757.
Glezen WP, Schmier JK, Kuehn CM, et al. The burden of influenza B: a structured literature review. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:e43-51.
World Health Organization. WHO EMRO|Influenza surveillance in the Region|News|Epidemic and pandemic diseases. Epidemic and pandemic-prone diseases. 2020. Accessed 02 Nov 2020.
Malik MR, Abubakar A, Kholy AE, et al. Improved capacity for influenza surveillance in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: progress in a challenging setting. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13:391–401.
World Health Organization. Summary report on the fifth meeting of the Eastern Mediterranean Acute Respiratory Infection Surveillance (EMARIS) network and second scientific conference on acute respiratory infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Casablanca, Morocco. 2019. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/334164. Accessed 02 Nov 2020.
Zaraket H, Melhem N, Malik M, Khan WM, Dbaibo G, Abubakar A. Review of seasonal influenza vaccination in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: policies, use and barriers. J Infect Public Health. 2019;12:472–8.
Ciblak MA, Ttenyurd MK, Asar S, TulunoĝLu M, Findiki N, Badur S. Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003–2012: results from national influenza reference laboratory, Istanbul faculty of medicine, Turkey. Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. 2012;46:575–93.
Almayahi ZK, Al Kindi H, Davies CT, et al. First report of human infection with avian influenza A(H9N2) virus in Oman: the need for a one health approach. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;91:169–73.
World Health Organization. Influenza update—379. 2020. https://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/updates/latest_update_GIP_surveillance/en/. Accessed 03 Nov 2020.
Rasooly MH, Sahak MN, Saeed KI, Krishnan SK, Khan W, Hassounah S. Capacity of the national influenza surveillance system in Afghanistan, a chronic conflict setting. East Mediterr Health J. 2016;22:475–81.
Farshad N, Saffar MJ, Khalilian AR, Saffar H. Respiratory viruses in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infections, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:590–2.
Soltani Z, Hosseini M, Shahidi M, Hedayati M, Kheiri MT. Molecular analysis of human influenza virus in Tehran, Iran. Intervirology. 2009;52:63–7.
Yavarian J, Mokhtari Azad T, Shafiei Jandaghi NZ, Nategh R. Amantadine-resistant influenza A (H3N2) viruses in Iran. Acta Virol. 2009;53:135–8.
Moattari A, Emami A, Moghadami M, Honarvar B. Influenza viral infections among the Iranian Hajj pilgrims returning to Shiraz, Fars province, Iran. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012;6:e77–9.
Yavarian J, Naseri M, Shadab AA. Epidemiological aspects of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus from in Iran. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012;6:74–6.
Afrasiabian S, Mohsenpour B, Bagheri KH, et al. Epidemiological survey on pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Kurdistan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2009. East Mediterr Health J. 2014;20:169–74.
Kenari SN, Haghshenas M, Mirzaei M, Rezaee MS, Tabrizi A. Prevalence of influenza A viruses in patients with flu symptoms attending Mazandaran provinces health centers, 2009–2013. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2014;24:1–10.
Pourakbari B, Mahmoudi S, Movahedi Z, et al. Viral etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized young children in a children’s referral hospital in Iran. Turk J Pediatr. 2014;56:354–9.
Haghshenas M, Jafarian E, Babamahmoodi F, et al. Prevalence of influenza A/H3N2 virus in northern Iran from 2011 to 2013. Caspian J Intern Med. 2015;6:116–9.
Khodadad N, Moattari A, Abadi MSS, et al. Prevalence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus resistant to oseltamivir in Shiraz, Iran, during 2012–2013. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015;2015:8.
Faezi NA, Bialvaei AZ, Leylabadlo HE, Soleimani H, Yousefi M, Kafil HS. Viral infections in patients with acute respiratory infection in Northwest of Iran. Mol Genet Microbiol Virol. 2016;31:163–7.
Moasser E, Behzadian F, Moattari A, et al. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human influenza A viruses isolated in Iran during the 2014–2015 season. Adv Virol. 2017;162:1975–84.
Hosseini S, Karami M, Farhadian M, Mohammadi Y. Seasonal activity of influenza in Iran: application of influenza-like illness data from sentinel sites of healthcare centers during 2010–2015. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2018;8:29–33.
Javanian M, Babazadeh A, Ebrahimpour S, Shokri M, Bayani M. Clinical and laboratory findings of patients with the possible diagnosis of influenza hospitalized in affiliated hospitals of Babol University of Medical Sciences, 2015–2016. Curr Issues Pharm Med Sci. 2018;31:113–6.
Yavarian J, Shafiei Jandaghi NZ, Naseri M, et al. Influenza virus but not MERS coronavirus circulation in Iran, 2013–2016: comparison between pilgrims and general population. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018;21:51–5.
Haghshenas MR, Mousanejad P, Aarabi M, et al. Prevalence of influenza A/H1N1 virus in north of Iran, 2013 to 2017. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2019;29:148–56.
Hosssininasab A. Clinical signs and treatment outcomes of children with H1N1 influenza in two outbreaks, Southeastern Iran. Antimicrobial Resistance Infect Control. 2019;2019:8.
Mohebbi A, Fotouhi F, Jamali A, et al. Molecular epidemiology of the hemagglutinin gene of prevalent influenza virus A/H1N1/pdm09 among patient in Iran. Virus Res. 2019;259:38–45.
Mood FS, Tabatabaei SM, Sharifi-Mood B, et al. The prevalence of respiratory viruses among patients with influenza-like illness in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran. Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2019;2019:14.
Rahmanian V, Shakeri M, Shakeri H, et al. Epidemiology of influenza in patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection in South of Iran (2015–2016). Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis. 2019;36:27–37.
Sharify Mood F, Sharifimood B, Metanat M. Prevalence of respiratory viruses causing influenza-like illness in patients reffered to clinics and hospitals in Sistan-Baluchistan in the autumn and winter 2015–2016. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2019;2019:8.
Nateghian A, Gouya MM, Nabavi M, et al. Demographic, clinical, and virological characteristics of patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of influenza during three consecutive seasons, 2015/2016–2017/18, in the Islamic Republic of Iran. J Clin Virol. 2020;124:104281.
Nasrallah GK, Meqdam MM, Al-Shurman A. Prevalence of parainfluenza and influenza viruses amongst children with upper respiratory tract infection. Saudi Med J. 2000;21:1024–9.
Altous M, Bsisu I, Obeidat Z, et al. Viral lower respiratory tract infections requiring hospitalisation among Jordanian adults. Respirology. 2019;24:189.
Zaraket H, Dbaibo G, Salam O, Saito R, Suzuki H. Influenza virus infections in Lebanese children in the 2007–2008 season. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:137–8.
Zaraket H, Dapat C, Ghanem S, et al. Characterization of human influenza viruses in lebanon during 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 post-pandemic seasons. Intervirology. 2014;57:344–52.
Saito R, Akinobu H, Shaker RA, et al. Characterization of influenza outbreaks in Lebanon during the 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. East Mediterr Health J. 2016;22:547–51.
Saleh M, Bazzi L, Ismail E, et al. Influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infections in 2 sentinel sites in Lebanon-September 2015 to August 2016. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018;12:331–5.
AlIbrahim M, Assaf-Casals A, Massaad E, et al. Molecular epidemiology and genetic characterization of influenza B virus in Lebanon during 2016–2018. Infect Genet Evol. 2019;75:103969.
Al-Lawati J, Al-Tamtami N, Al-Qasmi A, Al-Jardani A, Al-Abri SA. Hospitalised patients with Influenza A (H1N1) in the Royal Hospital, Oman: experience of a tertiary care hospital, July–December 2009. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2010;10:326–34.
Al-Mahrezi A, Samir N, Al-Zakwani I, Al-Muharmi Z, Balkhair A, Al-Shafaee M. Clinical characteristics of influenza A H1N1 versus other influenza-like illnesses amongst outpatients attending a university health center in Oman. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:e504–7.
Kharosi ZA, Dildar B, Al-Maamari K, Al-Mubaihsi SM. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of respiratory viral infections in adults at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), in Oman. Respirology. 2017;22:208–9.
Abdel-Hady DMA. Estimating the burden of influenza-associated hospitalization and deaths in Oman (2012–2015). Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018;12:146–52.
Badar N, Aamir UB, Mehmood MR, et al. Influenza virus surveillance in Pakistan during 2008–2011. PLoS ONE. 2013;2013:8.
Bashir U, Nisar N, Arshad Y, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza are the key viral pathogens in children \textless 2 years hospitalized with bronchiolitis and pneumonia in Islamabad Pakistan. Adv Virol. 2017;162:763–73.
Fatima A. NH1N1 influenza and risk of bacterial co infections among acutely ill children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2019;113:S262.
Bakri M, Samuh M, Azzeh M, et al. Molecular epidemiology survey and characterization of human influenza a viruses circulating among palestinians in East Jerusalem and the West Bank in 2015. PLoS ONE. 2019;2019:14.
Al-Romaihi HE, Smatti MK, Ganesan N, et al. Epidemiology of respiratory infections among adults in Qatar (2012–2017). PLoS ONE. 2019;14:e0218097.
Bakir TM, Halawani M, Ramia S. Viral aetiology and epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized Saudi children. J Trop Pediatr. 1998;44:100–3.
Al-Ayed MS, Asaad AM, Qureshi MA, Ameen MS. Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children in southwestern Saudi Arabia using multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Saudi Med J. 2014;35:1348–53.
Ali G, Amer HM, Almajhdi FN. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of influenza B viruses circulating in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 2010–2011: evolution and sequence analysis. J Med Virol. 2014;86:1003–16.
Amer HM, Alshaman MS, Farrag MA, Hamad ME, Alsaadi MM, Almajhdi FN. Epidemiology of 11 respiratory RNA viruses in a cohort of hospitalized children in Riyadh. Saudi Arabia J Med Virol. 2016;88:1086–91.
Tolah AM, Azhar EI, Hashem AM, et al. Susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors. Saudi Med J. 2016;37:461–5.
Al-Tawfiq JA, Ali AR, Hinedi KA. Influenza is more common than Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among hospitalized adult Saudi patients. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2017;20:56–60.
Altayep KM, Ahmed HG, Tallaa AT, Alzayed AS, Alshammari AJ, Ali-Talla AT. Epidemiology and clinical complication patterns of influenza A (H1N1 Virus) in Northern Saudi Arabia. Infect Dis Rep. 2017;9:6930.
Fagbo SF, Garbati MA, Hasan R, et al. Acute viral respiratory infections among children in MERS-endemic Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2012–2013. J Med Virol. 2017;89:195–201.
Assiri AM, Asiri SI, Banassir T, et al. Burden of influenza-related severe acute respiratory infections during Hajj season 1438 (2017). Lessons and future directions. Saudi Med J. 2017;2018(39):524–5.
Rabaan AA, Alshaikh SA, Bazzi AM, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemiology in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2018;11:636–9.
Al-Baadani A, Elzein F, Alhemyadi S, et al. Characteristics and outcome of viral pneumonia caused by influenza and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infections: a 4-year experience from a tertiary care center. Ann Thorac Med. 2019;14:179–85.
Khan A, AlBalwi MA, AlAbdulkareem I, et al. Atypical influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains caused an influenza virus outbreak in Saudi Arabia during the 2009–2011 pandemic season. J Infect Public Health. 2019;12:557–67.
Kaygusuz S, Koksal I, Aydin K, Caylan R. Investigation of atypical bacteria and virus antigens in respiratory tract infections by use of an immunofluorescence method. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:33–6.
Yüksel H, Yilmaz O, Akcali S, et al. Common viral etiologies of community acquired lower respiratory tract infections in young children and their relationship with long term complications. Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. 2008;42:429–35.
Carhan A, Altaş AB, Nurhan A, Uyar Y. Influenza surveillance results in 2007–2008 winter season in nine provinces of Turkey. Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. 2009;43:235–41.
Ceylan A, Dorman V, Yalim D, et al. Influenza surveillance in Diyarbakir between 2006–2009 years. TAF Prevent Med Bull. 2012;11:131–8.
Gülen F, Yıldız B, Çiçek C, Demir E, Tanaç R. Ten year retrospective evaluation of the seasonal distribution of agent viruses in childhood respiratory tract infections. Turk Pediatri Ars. 2014;49:42–6.
Karadag-Oncel E, Ciblak MA, Ozsurekci Y, Badur S, Ceyhan M. Viral etiology of influenza-like illnesses during the influenza season between December 2011 and April 2012. J Med Virol. 2014;86:865–71.
Çiçek C, Arslan A, Karakuş HS, et al. Prevalence and seasonal distribution of respiratory viruses in patients with acute respiratory tract infections, 2002–2014. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2015;49:188–200.
Cohen JM, Silva ML, Caini S, et al. Striking similarities in the presentation and duration of illness of influenza A and B in the community: a study based on sentinel surveillance networks in France and Turkey, 2010–2012. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0139431-e.
Puig-Barberà J, Tormos A, Trushakova S, et al. The global influenza hospital surveillance network (GIHSN): a new platform to describe the epidemiology of severe influenza. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2015;9:277–86.
Altaş AB, Bayrakdar F, Korukluoğlu G. Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from national influenza center. Turkey Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. 2016;50:401–17.
Goktas S, Sirin MC, et al. Prevalence and seasonal distribution of respiratory viruses during the 2014–2015 season in Istanbul. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2016;2016:9.
Gülcen BS, Feyzioğlu B, Özdemir M, Baykan M. Detection of influenza viruses from patients in university hospital. J Clin Virol. 2016;82:S115.
Meşe S, Asar S, Tulunoğlu M, et al. Evaluation of sentinel influenza surveillance of the last two seasons: 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2016;50:418–27.
Puig-Barbera J, Natividad-Sancho A, Trushakova S, et al. Epidemiology of hospital admissions with influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza season: results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154970.
Özışık L, Durusu-Tanrıöver M, Çıblak-Akçay M, et al. Mortality related factors in patients requiring hospitalization for influenza like illness. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2017;51:20–31.
Tanriover MDA. Poor outcomes among elderly patients hospitalized for influenza-like illness. Curr Med Res Opin. 2017;2017:1–7.
Aykac K, Karadag-Oncel E, Bayhan C, et al. Prevalence and seasonal distribution of viral etiology of respiratory tract infections in inpatients and outpatients of the pediatric population: 10 year follow-up. Turk J Pediatr. 2018;60:642–52..
Erçen Diken Ö, Arslan S, Akdoğan Ö, et al. Clinical, radiological and prognostic features of influenza cases in the influenza epidemic during years 2016–2017. Tuberk Toraks. 2018;66:144–9.
Ortac-Ersoy E, Er B, Eyupoglu S, et al. Outcome of influenza related intensive care unit admissions in 2017–2018 flu season: a multicenter study from Turkey. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2018;2018:6.
Aysert-Yildiz P, Aktas F. Investigation of influenza and respiratory viruses in hospitalised patients with influenza-like illness in an emergency room. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2019;13:1021–8.
Puig-Barberà J, Mira-Iglesias A, Burtseva E, et al. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2015–2016 season: results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network. BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19:415.
Alsuwaidi AR, Al-Mekaini LA, Kamal SM, Narchi H, Souid A-K. Seroprevalence of influenza A and B viruses among unvaccinated children in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:379.
Jeon JH, Han M, Chang HE, et al. Incidence and seasonality of respiratory viruses causing acute respiratory infections in the Northern United Arab Emirates. J Med Virol. 2019;91:1378–84.
Al Amad M, Al Mahqri A, Al SA. Severe acute respiratory infections associated with influenza and non-influenza viruses—Yemen, 2011–2014. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;45:291.
Thabet AAK, Al-Kohani A, Shadoul A, Al-Mahaqri AA. Characteristics of severe acute respiratory infection associated hospitalization in Yemen, 2014/15. Eastern Mediterr Health. 2016;22:440–4.
Al Amad MA, Al Mahaqri AA, Al Serouri AA, Khader YS. Severe acute respiratory infections with influenza and noninfluenza respiratory viruses: Yemen, 2011–2016. Inquiry. 2019;56:46958019850731.
Radin JM, Katz MA, Tempia S, et al. Influenza surveillance in 15 countries in Africa, 2006–2010. J Infect Dis. 2012;206(Suppl 1):S14-21.
Ait-Aissa A, Derrar F, Hannoun D, Gradi EA, Scaravelli D, Bouslama Z. Surveillance for antiviral resistance among influenza viruses circulating in Algeria during five consecutive influenza seasons (2009–2014). J Med Virol. 2018;90:844–53.
Derrar F, Voirin N, Khanafer N, et al. Influenza surveillance during the 2009–2010, 2010–2011, 2011–2012, and 2012–2013 seasons in Algeria. J Med Virol. 2019;91:1394–9.
Shafik CF, Mohareb EW, Yassin AS, Amin MA. Viral etiologies of lower respiratory tract infections among Egyptian children under five years of age. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:350.
Refaey S, Amin M, Labib M, Kandeel A. Influenza virus positivity and circulating subtypes among cases of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection, Egypt, 2012–2015. East Mediterr Health J. 2016;22:527–36.
Elhakim MA, Rasooly MH, Fahim M, et al. Epidemiology of severe cases of influenza and other acute respiratory infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, July 2016 to June 2018. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13:423–9.
Barakat A, Ihazmad H, Benkaroum S, Cherkaoui I, Benmamoun A, Youbi MA. Influenza surveillance among outpatients and inpatients in Morocco, 1996–2009. PLoS ONE. 2011;2011:6.
Anga LAF, Idrissi A, Hassar M, Cadi R, Nourlil J. Molecular detection and identification of influenza viruses in Casablanca during 2010–2011. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2012;50:A117–8.
Elfalki F, Ihazmad H, Bimouhen A, et al. Detection of influenza B viruses with reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitor in Morocco during 2014/15 season. East Mediterr Health J. 2016;22:453–9.
El-Moussi A, Ben-Hadj-Kacem MA, Ledesma J, et al. Genetic diversity of influenza B virus in 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 in Tunisia. Med Mal Infect. 2013;43:337–44.
Meddeb K, Boujelbn MA, Rouis S, et al. Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI): Frequency and microbiology in a Tunisian medical ICU. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2018;2018:6.
Al-Awaidy S, Hamid SA. The burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations in Oman, January 2008–June 2013. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144186.