Synthesis, biological investigation and catalytic application using the alcoholic extract of Black Cumin (Bunium Persicum) seeds-based silver nanoparticles


The inadequate role of silver nanoparticles is evident from their underutilization in myriad applications in the modern era. Herein we report the environment-friendly, facile, and robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from alcoholic extracts of black cumin (Bunium persicum) seeds to reduce and stabilise agents. The extract principally consists of nigellon, terpenoid, thymoquinone, polyene, phenylpropanoids, and phototoxic furanocoumarins. The effect of pH revealed that the BCS@Ag-NPs were more stable at neutral pH than acidic and basic. A change in the size and number of BCS@Ag-NPs was observed at high sodium chloride solution concentrations showing their instability in a concentrated salt solution. The synthesized BCS@Ag-NPs were considered significant catalysts showed by approximate 99% conversion of the 4-nitrophenolate anion into 4-aminophenol in 24 min. The surface plasmon resonance of BCS@Ag-NPs at 430 nm was recorded on UV–Vis spectrometer, and particle size ranging from 35 to 77 nm was measured through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of amines, alcohols and amide functional groups at 3365 cm−1, 1646 cm−1 and 1026 cm−1 capped along with the reduction of BCS@Ag-NPs. The firm peaks for Ag atoms in BCS@Ag-NPs at almost 0.4, 3.1 and 3.2 keV in EDX analysis showed the presence of elemental silver. Nevertheless, the alcoholic seed extract and synthesized BCS@Ag-NPs exhibited excellent various pharmacological activities. Both the tested samples significantly inhibited Urease, CA-II, PDE-I. The inhibitory potential against tyrosinase was appreciated against extract as compared to BCS@Ag-NPs. The alcoholic extract was effective in the inhibition of E. coli. Both of the tested samples proved significant analgesia in the acetic acid-induced writhing model. A noticeable sedative response was observed as a compared extract. No mortality was detected in acute toxicity. In conclusion, these results provide the scientific rationale to the folklore of black cumin for GIT problems, hypertension, bronchodilation and analgesic.

Graphic abstract

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Fig. 18



Black cumin seeds silver nanoparticles

Ag NPs:

Silver nanoparticles

Ag+ 1 :

Silver ions

AgNO3 :

Silver nitrate


Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Scanning electron microscopy


Sodium chloride








Magnetic resonance imaging


Revolution per minute


Sodium hydroxide


4-Nitrophenyl acetate(4-NPA)


Dimethyl sulfoxide


Acetic acid










Thermogravimetric analysis


Atomic force microscopy


Energy dispersive X-ray


X-ray diffraction




Optical density


Gastrointestinal disorder


Carbonic anhydrase


Ethylene diamine tetraacetate



E. coli :

Escherichia coli


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The authors thank the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing fund under grant number NRPU, Application Ref No. HEC/R&D/NRPU/2017/7343. The work is funded by grant number 14-MED333-10 from the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan (MAARIFAH), the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We also thank the Science and Technology Unit at Umm Al-Qura University for their continued logistic support.

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Khan, I., Bawazeer, S., Rauf, A. et al. Synthesis, biological investigation and catalytic application using the alcoholic extract of Black Cumin (Bunium Persicum) seeds-based silver nanoparticles. J Nanostruct Chem (2021).

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  • Bunium persicum
  • Black cumin seeds
  • The stability of BCS
  • Ag-NPs
  • Catalytic activity
  • Biological potential