Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles from leaf extracts of Annona muricata
- 217 Downloads
The need to divulge the rapid synthesis, non-hazardous, cost effectiveness and eco-friendly methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles utilizing plants is of great importance. This is as a result of high toxicity associated with the chemical method of synthesizing nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of the synthesized gold nanoparticle against selected human pathogens. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting 1 mM gold chloride solution with leaf extract of Annona muricata. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized with UV–visible spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were also investigated. The morphology, size, and structural properties of synthesized gold nanoparticles were determined with TEM analysis which showed spherical mono-dispersed structure with an average particle size of 25.5 nm. FTIR analysis reveal band at 3271.14, 2111.91 and 1637.82 cm−1 corresponding to –N–H, –C=C, and –C–N functional groups that are responsible for the capping and stabilization of synthesized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of the gold nanoparticle against the test pathogens increases as the concentration of gold nanoparticle increases. The percentage of zones of inhibition of synthesized gold nanoparticle against test fungi and bacteria ranges from 30 to 66% and 40 to 54%, respectively. The potency of the synthesized gold nanoparticle against the selected fungi and bacteria increases with increase in concentration of gold nanoparticle. Therefore, the antibacterial and antifungal investigation revealed that the synthesized gold nanoparticles exhibited good antimicrobial activity.
KeywordsCharacterization Antimicrobial Gold nanoparticles Annona muricata
In modern materials sciences nanotechnology is one of the imperative approach used to detect nano-substance which has found numerous applications in various fields such as pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences . Previously, nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method where chemicals act as the reducing agents. But the toxicity and probable risk on human health and environment are major limitations to this approach, the biological methods which use plants is more preferable because of its nontoxicity, tranquil scaling-up, and reproducibility in making [2, 3]. The greener method of phytomediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles using dalspinin at room temperature has been reported not to toxic . The development of an eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of nanoparticle via the biological method using plants arises as a result of the hazardous effect of the chemical and physical methods of synthesizing nanoparticles. The bioactive compounds present in plants act as reducing agents which helps in the reduction of metal ions to metal nanoparticles with distinct size, shapes and significant antimicrobial efficiency . The antimicrobial potency of nanoparticles and its small size motivate researchers in evaluating different methods for the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed nanoparticles with verified antimicrobial activities . The antimicrobial properties of the nanoparticles synthesized from Annona muricata extract showed a great inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the growing resistant strains developed by microbes against metal ions and antibiotics coupled with the good antibacterial properties of gold nanoparticles are the major interest of researchers in green synthesize of gold nanoparticles [7, 8]. Among other metal nanoparticles gold nanoparticle exhibits effective antimicrobial property due to its tremendously large surface area, which provides better contact with microorganisms . The high chemical stability, optical properties, oxidation resistance and biocompatibility properties of gold nanoparticles and their applications in different field of study such as biology, optics and medicine make synthesis of gold nanoparticles an interesting object of study . The advantage of synthesizing gold nanoparticles from plant extract is not limited to reduction of environmental toxicity, the production of nanoparticles in large quantities, simplicity of reducing metal salts, rapid, cost effective, and safety for clinical research to nanoparticles are other advantages associated with this method of synthesis, the green synthesized gold nanoparticle can be used in development of catalysts, sensors, nano medicine and biomarker applications . Gold nanoparticles exhibit properties that are different from that of bulk gold and can be manufactured into various shapes such as nanorods, nanostars, nanobelts, nanospheres, nanocages and nanoprisms . The size, high surface area, and shapes of gold nanoparticles have influenced its chemical properties and have increased its applications especially in the field of medicine . From traditional age to modern age entire part of A. muricata plant have been reported to provide vast medicinal benefits to human by curing ailments such as bacteria, fungi, cancer, tumor, arthritic, diabetics, inflammation, sedative, diarrheal and diuretic infections . This study was aimed at the investigation of stable and efficient process for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle using A. muricata leaf via the characterization and pharmacological activities evaluation.
Materials and methods
Preparation of leaf extract
Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles
The method of  was adopted in the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles. 1 ml of the obtained leaf extract was added to 1 mM solution of gold chloride and stirred properly at room temperature until the yellow color of the extract changed to purple color that confirmed the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The mixture was incubated for 22 h for thorough bio-reduction of gold chloride to gold nanoparticles from leaf extract. The reduction of gold chloride to gold nanoparticles was monitored with UV–Vis spectrometer by recording the UV–Vis absorption spectrum as a function of time.
UV–Vis spectrometer (UV-245 Shimadzu) was used at various time intervals to ascertain the optimum concentration of plant extracts. The purple color confirmed the formation of the gold nanoparticle. The formation of the gold nanoparticle was confirmed by scanning the absorption maxima of freshly prepared sample of gold nanoparticle using 1 cm path length quartz cuvettes at temperature range of 24–28 °C at wavelength 450–850 nm.
The FTIR analysis was determined with FTIR spectrometer, Nicolet iS50 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The freeze-dried gold nanoparticle extract was mixed with KBR (FTIR grade) and scanned on FTIR over the range of 4000–380 cm−1 at a resolution of 4 cm−1. FTIR analysis was used for the identification of functional group present and to study the interactions of the functional groups as a source of reducing agents on the surface of synthesized nanoparticles.
Transmission electron microscopy
The particle size and surface morphology of synthesized gold nanoparticle were measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) JEOL model 1200EX, at an accelerating voltage of 80 kilo voltage. The synthesized gold nanoparticle samples were prepared by dropping few drops of the gold nanoparticle solution on Lacey carbon grids, 300 mesh and allowed the grid to dry before measurement.
Antibacterial investigation of gold nanoparticles
Antifungal investigation of gold nanoparticles
Results and discussion
UV analysis of gold nanoparticles
FTIR analysis of gold nanoparticles
TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles
Antibacterial investigation of gold nanoparticles
Pathogenic bacteria and fungal used
Antifungal investigation of gold nanoparticles
The simplicity in synthesizing gold nanoparticle from A. muricata leaf extract offersa valuable contribution to green synthesis and nanotechnology because of its rapid synthesis, economic effectiveness, reproducible method and large amount of gold nanoparticles was attained without any toxic reagents been released to the environment. The synthesized gold nanoparticles from A. muricata leaf extract show broad inhibition against test bacterial and fungal there by making the synthesized gold nanoparticles a good antimicrobial agent. The information obtained from this study can be adopted by drug agencies in production of antibiotics drugs which will help in combating microbes that have developed resistance against existing antibiotic drugs.
- 2.Weingart, J., Vabbilisetty, P., Sun, X.L.: Membrane mimetic surface functionalization of nanoparticles: methods and applications. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 197, 68–84 (2014)Google Scholar
- 7.del Marıa, C.S., Claudio, A.R., Nereyda, N., Roberto, S., Gabriel, A.M., DeAlba-Montero, I., Facundo, R.: Cytotoxic and bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis method using Annona muricata aqueous extract and functionalized with 5-fluorouracil. Bioinorg. Chem. Appl. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6506381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Sahayaraj, K., Rajesh, S.: Bionanoparticles: synthesis and antimicrobial applications. In: Mendez-Vilas, A. (ed.) Sci Against Microbial Pathogens: Research Development and Evaluation, Proceedings of the International Conference on Antimicrobial Research, pp. 228–244. World Scientific, Spain (2011)Google Scholar
- 9.Sorbiun, M., Shayegan, M.E., Ramazani, A., Mashhadi, M.A.: Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts and evaluation of their antibacterial properties. Nanochem. Res. 3(1), 1–16 (2018)Google Scholar
- 14.Elavarasan, K., Govindhappa, M., Soundararajan, Stephen, D.S.: Medicinal properties and uses of sour sop (Annona muricata L.). Rashtriya Krishi 2(9), 73–75 (2014)Google Scholar
- 18.Hatem, F., Li, H., Hosni, D., Jiqian, W., Ghulam, A., Hassan, G., Mo, J.: Controlling Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens using silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its mode of action. Artif Cells Nanomed. Biotechnol. 46(3), 558–567 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Massoud, K., Nafiseh, Jafar, : Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of stem of Periploca aphylla. Plant Nanostruct. 8(2), 152–158 (2018)Google Scholar
- 21.Diane, C.T., Sidney, C.M, Jet, G.G.: Biosynthesized Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the Quantitation of Mercury (II) Ions by Digital Imaging Colorimetry. http://www.aq.edu.ph/main/downloads/pdfs/2016-2017-8.pdf. Accessed 05 Apr 2019
- 22.Avan, E.D., Quadry, R.O., Ikenna-Ossai, C.N., Okolie, N.P.: Effects of Annona muricata biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles on erythrocyte osmotic fragility and hematological profile in rat model. Covenant J. Phys. Life Sci. 2(1), 33–45 (2018)Google Scholar
- 23.Fouad, H., Li, H., Ding, Y., Baoting, Yu., Ahmed, E., Ghulam, A., Mo, J.: Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis to control filarial vector Culex pipiens pallens and its antimicrobial activity. Artif. Cells Nanomed. Biotechnol. 45(7), 1369–1378 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Thanighaiarassu, R.R., Sivamai, P., Devika, R., Nambikkairaj, B.: Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles characterization by using plant essential oil menthapiperita and their antifungal activity against human pathogenic fungi. J. Nanomed. Nanotechnol. 5, 229 (2014)Google Scholar
- 25.Khan, S., Bakht, J., Syed, F.: Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Acer pentapomicum leaves extract its characterization, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant bioassay. Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct. 2(13), 579–589 (2018)Google Scholar
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.