Effect of gamma ray on optical characteristics of (PMMA/PS) polymer blends
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Gamma ray effect has been worked out on PMMA/PS blends at different concentrations. The optical constants such as the absorption coefficient, refractive index are calculated, and optical energy gap (direct/indirect) has been studied before and after irradiation. Transmittance, absorbance, and reflectance spectra of pure and blends polymers are investigated.
KeywordsPolymer blend PMMA polymer PS polymer Gamma radiation Optical properties
The effect of radiation on polymeric materials is of great importance as it allows modifying and improving the physical properties of polymers. Irradiation of polymeric materials with gamma rays, X-rays, accelerated electrons, and ion beams, for example, leads to the formation of reactive intermediates and free radicals which then lead to important reactions such as degradation or cross linking. These interactions have been controlled by the given amount of radiation dose . Different polymers have different reactions affected by the dose of radiation, which are intrinsically related to the chemical structures of the polymers. Therefore, the properties of polymer such as the optical, electrical, mechanical, and chemical become modified .
Polymer blends can be broadly divided into three forms: (1) immiscible polymer blends; (2) compatible polymer blends; and (3) miscible polymer blends. Our research includes blends from the first kind that is a heterogeneous polymer blends, this is so far the most populous group, and if the blend is made of two polymers, two glass transition temperatures will be observed .
Polymer blends are widely used materials in the new polymer industry because of their wider range of properties as compared to the individual polymers . Where the materials mixed chemically and physically with each other to produce a new functional properties, as a result, polymer blend finds application in numerous fields such as adhesion, glutinous stability, design of composite, and compatible vital materials.
Optical properties of blends of PMMA compared with other polymers have been measured by many researches [5, 6]. PMMA and PS are known polymers and their mechanical, chemical, and other properties have been investigated . The PMMA have a good compatible nature with the other polymers; therefore, this study done to show the effect of various ratios from PMMA with PS polymer as a thin-film blends and its effect on some important optical parameters such as absorbance, refractive index, reflectivity, absorbance coefficient, dielectric constant, and calculate energy gap. In addition, the main goal of this project is to study the effect of gamma irradiation on these properties.
Polystyrene (PS) which is the form of granules and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is manufactured by the company (ICI). The preparation method is casting method . The polymers separately dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with 99.998% purity. Different percentages (0/100, 20/80, 50/50, 80/20, and 100/0%) from the two polymers are mixed very well at magnetic stirrer and poured into the clean glass Petri dish and left for 24 h to obtain homogenous films.
The measurements of absorbance and transmittance spectra in the wavelength range (200–1100) nm were carried out using a UV–VIS (T70/T80 Spectrophotometer).
Cs-137 served as the gamma irradiation source, the film samples were placed simultaneously at the centre of the chamber surrounded for radiation equilibrium purposes, and samples were irradiated with (200 rad) dose, for 48 h at room temperature.
Film thicknesses were calculated from digital micrometer type (Tesha) (0.001) mm that are (0.11–0.5) mm for samples.
Results and discussion
A sudden decrease in the absorption values in the visible region, the best absorption, was for the 20% PMMA and 80% PS. This may be attributed to the decrease in the levels at the energy band by increasing the PS contrition, and these results are in good agreement with other researchers [15, 16].
Parameters of optical properties of polymer system before irradiation
20% PS and 80% PMMA
50% PS and 50% PMMA
80% PS and 20% PMMA
Parameters of optical properties of polymer system after irradiation
20% PMMA and 80% PS
50% PMMA and 50% PS
80% PMMA and 20% PS
UV–VIS spectrophotometric studies optical properties for irradiated PMMA/PS blend films with different concentration ratios, the indirect bandgap is greater than the direct bandgap, the decrease in the energy bandgaps after irradiation with gamma ray may be attributed to an increase in rearranging in the molecules of the polymer blends when it is exposed to radiation, and the optical constants also affected by gamma ray as shown in tables, and each optical constants have changed value after irradiation.
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