Skip to main content

Energetic, economic and environmental analysis of domestic solar water heating systems under the African continent

Abstract

Given the abundance of solar irradiation in Africa, different types of Solar Water Heating technologies can offer practical and reasonable solutions that are valuable for African people and their environment. However, these technologies' impacts were not quantified, and lack of studies could be in part attributed to the weak implementation of solar water heating systems on most countries in Africa. The aim of this paper is first, a model was developed and validated to investigate and analyze the energy performances of the two most domestic used technologies in the African continent: the flat plate collectors and the evacuated tube collectors. Next, the economic and environmental aspects of these systems are also presented. The study was carried out for 43 countries divided in 5 regions: North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. The energy analysis, in terms of solar fraction, shows that the solar production of domestic hot water varies between 25 and 88% for the evacuated tube and between 10 and 60% for the flat plat collector and this according to the 5 regions mentioned above. Based on the Net present worth, the Benefit–Cost Ratio and the Discounted payback period, the economic analysis shows that these two technologies are beneficial for 16 of the 43 countries studied. That is due to the abundance of other energy resources in the remaining countries.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig.1
Fig. 2
Fig.3
Fig.4
Fig.5
Fig.6
Fig.7
Fig.8
Fig.9

Abbreviations

SWH:

Solar Water Heating

FPC:

Flat plate collector

ETC:

Evacuated tube collector

Qc:

Energy collected (kWh)

Qd :

Energy delivered (kWh)

Qloss:

Energy losses (kWh)

Qaux:

Auxiliary electrical energy (kWh)

IAM:

Incidence Angle Modified

TMY:

Typical meteorological year

a 0 :

Intercept efficiency (%)

a 1 :

First-order efficiency coefficient W. m−2 k−1

a 2 :

Second-order efficiency coefficient W. m−2 k−2

T m :

Mean water temperature (K)

T ext :

Ambient air temperature (K)

SF:

Solar Fraction (%)

G:

Solar radiation (W. m−2)

i:

Interest rate (%)

d:

Discount rate (%)

NPW:

Net present worth

BCR:

Cost-benefit ratio

DPP:

Discounted payback period

SPP:

Simple payback period

A:

Annual saving ($)

CF:

Cash-Flow ($)

N:

Life Time (Year)

USPW:

Uniform series present worth

SPPW:

Single payment present worth

EF:

Emission Factor (kg.CO2eq/kWh)

GHG:

Greenhouse Gas

λ :

Rate of inflation (%)

µ :

Thermal efficiency (%)

References

  • The Economist Intelligence Unit (2016) Power Up: Delivering Renewable Energy in Africa.

  • The World Bank (2017) World Development Indicators database for population.

  • Trading Economics (2018) TRADING ECONOMICS.

  • African Development Bank Group (2019) Macroeconomic developments and prospects Political economy of regional integration.

  • African Development Bank Group (2020) African economic outlook: Developing Africa’s workforce for the future, Annual yearly review study.

  • A Al Jamar et al. (2019) Forecast of the Installed Capacity of Solar Water Heaters and Its Economic and Social Impact in Morocco: A Time Series Analysis, In International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Systems for Sustainable Development. Springer, pp 347–357

  • Allali I (2011) PROMASOL: Democratizing access to solar water-heaters. Growing Inclusive Markets, Morocco

    Google Scholar 

  • Artur C et al (2020) ‘Domestic hot water technology transition for solar thermal systems: An assessment for the urban areas of Maputo city. Mozambique’, J Clean Prod 260:121043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121043

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aydin E, Eichholtz P, Yönder E (2018) The economics of residential solar water heaters in emerging economies: the case of Turkey. Energy Econ 75:285–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bakehe NP (2018) Agricultural productivity and deforestation in the Congo Basin. Économie rurale Société Française d’Économie Rurale 366(4):5–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Ben Taher, M. A. et al. (2018) Energy, environmental DND economic study RF different solar water heating systems Ln different Moroccan climate zones, In Proceedings of 2018 6th International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference, IRSEC 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/IRSEC.2018.8702918.

  • Ben Taher MA et al (2019) Energy study of different solar water heating systems in MENA region. Adv Intell Syst Comput. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12065-8_26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Curry C, Cherni JA, Mapako M (2017) The potential and reality of the solar water heater programme in South African townships: lessons from the city of Tshwane. Energy Policy 106:75–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ECOWAS (2012) Renewable energy in West Africa, Renewable Energy in West Africa.

  • Endale A (2019) Analysis of status, potential and economic significance of solar water heating system in Ethiopia. Renew energy. 132:1167–1176

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gabra S, Miles J, Scott SA (2019) Techno-economic analysis of stand-alone wind micro-grids, compared with PV and diesel in Africa. Renew Energy 143:1928–1938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.05.119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hazami M et al (2013) Long-term performances prediction of an evacuated tube solar water heating system used for single-family households under typical Nord-African climate (Tunisia). Sol Energy. 94:283–298

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffmann JE (2019) On the outlook for solar thermal hydrogen production in South Africa. Int J Hydrogen Energy 44(2):629–640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.11.069

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang J, Fan J, Furbo S (2019) Feasibility study on solar district heating in China. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 108:53–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hussein HMS (2002) Transient investigation of a two phase closed thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater. Energy Convers Manag 43(18):2479–2492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • INIES (2020) Environmental and health reference data for building.

  • Lamrani B, Khouya A, Draoui A (2019) Energy and environmental analysis of an indirect hybrid solar dryer of wood using TRNSYS software. Sol Energy 183:132–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2019.03.014

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mohamed SA (2020) Application of geo-spatial Analytical Hierarchy Process and multi-criteria analysis for site suitability of the desalination solar stations in Egypt. J Afr Earth Sc 164:103767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2020.103767

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ouedraogo NS (2017) ‘Modeling sustainable long-term electricity supply-demand in Africa’, Applied Energy. Elsevier 190:1047–1067

    Google Scholar 

  • International Energy Agency (2015) Technology Collaboration Programme on Solar Heating and Cooling : Annual Report.

  • Rajab Z et al. (2017) Techno-economic feasibility study of Solar Water Heating system in Libya’, In: 2017 8th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC). IEEE, pp. 1–6.

  • REN21 (2018) SADC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report.

  • Rosas-Flores JA, Rosas-Flores D, Zayas JLF (2016) Potential energy saving in urban and rural households of Mexico by use of solar water heaters, using geographical information system. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 53:243–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sami S et al (2018) Viability of integrating solar water heating systems into high energy performance housing in Algeria. Energy 149:354–363

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • UPDEA. Secrétariat Général (2009) ‘Etude comparative des tarifs d’électricité pratiqués en Afrique’, (December).

  • UNPD (2017) ‘World Population Data prospectus’.

  • World Bank Group (2017) State of Electricity Access Report 2017, State of Electricity Access Report 2017. World Bank, Washington, DC. doi: https://doi.org/10.1596/26646

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors extend their acknowledgement to the research component of the German cooperation project GIZ / DKTI IV (Grant number 15.2169.9-001.00) for supporting the development of this work

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. A. Ben Taher.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Additional information

Editorial responsibility: Samareh Mirkia.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ben Taher, M.A., Kousksou, T., Zeraouli, Y. et al. Energetic, economic and environmental analysis of domestic solar water heating systems under the African continent. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 2279–2294 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-021-03273-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-021-03273-7

Keywords

  • Economic method
  • Environmental impact
  • Renewable energy
  • TRNSYS