Mitochondrial pathway mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest triggered by aqueous extract of wheatgrass in colon cancer colo-205 cells
Four different extracts of wheatgrass i.e. hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous were used to evaluate the anti-cancer potential on COLO-205 cells. Aqueous extract demonstrated maximum anti-cancer activities with significant inhibition on growth of COLO-205 cells. Anti-proliferative capabilities were also enhanced, as observed from clonogenic survival and in vitro wound scratch assay. Increased apoptotic hallmarks were evidenced in aqueous extract treated cells such as, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation and membrane blebbing. Increased expression of caspase-9, caspase-3 and Bax genes, along with down-regulation of Bcl-2 gene was also seen. Arrest of cells at G0/G1 phase by flow cytometric analysis could be attributed to up-regulated expression of inhibitors of cell cycle progression i.e. p16, p21 and p27 in aqueous extract treated cells. GC analysis revealed the presence of various chemicals possessing medicinal properties which could be responsible for the effects seen on the cancer cells. Our findings, for the first time suggest that the aqueous extract of wheatgrass represents a potential plant based anti-cancer agent.
KeywordsWheatgrass Cytoxicity Anti-proliferation Migration Apoptosis and cell cycle
Hexane wheatgrass extract
Chloroform wheatgrass extract
Methanol wheatgrass extract
Aqueous wheatgrass extract
Concentration which leads to 50 % cell death
Cyclin dependent kinases inhibitor
We are thankful to the Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan for providing us the infrastructure to carry out this research.
Conflict of interest statement
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
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