Swiss Journal of Palaeontology

, Volume 135, Issue 2, pp 349–352 | Cite as

Rostroconchs in Leiden

  • Stephen K. DonovanEmail author
  • P. A. Madern


For a land with a dearth of natural rock outcrops, the Netherlands abounds with urban ‘exposures’ of fossiliferous rocks such as building stones, street furniture and street art. In the Rapenburg in Leiden, sections through distinctive shells in Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) limestones are identified as rostroconch molluscs (Order Conocardioidea). The generic identification is tentative, but the specimens may belong to the genus Filicardia Rogalla and Amler, perhaps the common Filicardia inflata (M’Coy). The only other mollusc taxon that has been identified from these rocks is the gastropod Straparollus? sp.


Mollusca Conocardioidea Mississippian Filicardia Building stones Urban geology 



We acknowledge the support of Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, for facilitating this research project, and the enthusiasm of the many student groups from the University of Leiden that we have conducted down the Rapenburg in fair weather and foul. Special thanks to Ms. Karen Robinson for thrusting the print into S. K. D.’s hands which led to the solution of this investigation; the relevant part is reproduced as Fig. 2 herein. Special thanks to our reviewers for their pertinent comments, Professor Franz T. Fürsich (Friedrich-Alexander Universität, Erlangen), and particularly, Dr. Michael R. W. Amler (Universität zu Köln and Phillips-Universität Marburg).


  1. Amler, M. R. W., & Rogalla, N. S. (2004). History and nomenclature of the Conocardioidea (Mollusca: Rostroconchia). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 78, 307–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amler, M. R. W., & Rogalla, N. S. (2013). Biogeographical distribution patterns in early Palaeozoic Rostroconchia (Mollusca). In D. A. T. Harper, & T. Servais (Eds.), Early Palaeozoic Biogeography and Palaeogeography. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 38, 243—263.Google Scholar
  3. Anon. (1885–1890). Meyers KonservationsLexikon: eine Encyklopädie des allgemeinen Wissens, 4. Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut.Google Scholar
  4. Donovan, S. K. (2014a). Urban geology: a sunny Sunday in Hoofddorp. Deposits, 38, 8–10.Google Scholar
  5. Donovan, S. K. (2014b). An unnatural bridge in an artificial limestone environment, the Netherlands. Cave & Karst Science, 41, 118–119.Google Scholar
  6. Donovan, S. K. (2015a). Urban geology: two granites. Deposits, 41, 8–9.Google Scholar
  7. Donovan, S. K. (2015b). Urban geology: boulders and the Dutch. Deposits, 42, 8–9.Google Scholar
  8. Donovan, S. K. (2016). A mollusc–coral interaction in a paving slab, Leiden, the Netherlands. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, 42, 45–46.Google Scholar
  9. Donovan, S. K., Jagt, J. W. M., & Jagt-Yazykova, E. A. (2017). A well-preserved crinoid stem in a building stone (Lower Carboniferous, Mississippian) at Maastricht, the Netherlands. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 43 (in press).Google Scholar
  10. M’Coy, F. (1844). In Griffith, R. (Ed.), A synopsis of the characters of the Carboniferous Limestone fossils of Ireland (p. 274). Dublin: University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Mitchell, M. (2003). A lateral key for the identification of the commoner Lower Carboniferous Coral Genera (p. 13). Manchester: Westmorland Geological Society and Manchester Geological Association.Google Scholar
  12. Pojeta, J, Jr. (1987). Class Rostroconchia. In R. S. Boardman, A. H. Cheetham, & A. J. Rowell (Eds.), Fossil invertebrates (pp. 358–380). Palo Alto: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Pojeta, J, Jr, Runnegar, B., Morris, N. J., & Newell, N. D. (1972). Rostroconchia: a new class of bivalved molluscs. Science, 177, 264–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rogalla, N. S., & Amler, M. R. W. (2006). Taxonomie und Systematik der Hippocardioidea Pojeta & Runnegar, 1976 [n. superfam.] (Mollusca; Rostroconchia). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 80, 344–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rogalla, N. S., & Amler, M. R. W. (2007). Nomina dubia der Hippocardioidea (Mollusca; Rostroconchia). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 81, 29–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. van Roekel, A. (2007). Discover fossils in downtown Amsterdam: ancient ocean life in Amsterdam’s Alleys. Second revised edition (p. 18). Amsterdam: Uitgeverij De Vuurberg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akademie der Naturwissenschaften Schweiz (SCNAT) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Naturalis Biodiversity CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autòboma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICPCerdanyola del VallèSpain

Personalised recommendations