Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, the causative pathogen of bacterial leaf blight (BB) disease is one of the most prevalent rice diseases in Malaysia. Breeding for resistance requires information on the pathogenic variability of X. oryzae for decision-making on the deployment of appropriate resistance genes. In this study, nine Near Isogenic rice Lines (NILs) carrying single BB resistance genes (Xa) used to characterize the virulence of 40 X. oryzae isolates collected from Malaysian rice granaries. The results revealed a highly diverse pathogenic profile, consisting of 21 distinct X. oryzae races named R1 to R21. Race R20, followed by R16 were identified as dominant, showing the highest frequency. Although no Xa genes have been used in Malaysian rice granaries up to now, unexpectedly race R20 was found virulent to most of the NILs carrying the Xa genes. However, the wide distribution of avirulence gene avrxa5 and avrXa7 among the isolates indicated that the population was most effective to NILs carrying the xa5 and Xa7 genes. The information obtained helps to understand the virulence of X. oryzae population and facilitates an adequate gene deployment to increase BB disease resistance in Malaysia.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adhikari TB, Cruz C, Zhang Q, Nelson RJ, Skinner DZ, Mew TW, Leach JE (1995) Genetic diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Asia. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:966–971 https://aem.asm.org/content/aem/61/3/966.full.pdf
Alam MS, Islam MR, Hossain I, Bhuiyan MR, Khan MA (2016) Pathotypic variation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Bangladesh. Arch Phytopathol Pflanzenschutz 49:31–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235408.2016.1150633
Bai YL, Zhang XM, Hui FE, Ji HL, Huang Y, Peng YL (2012) Virulence types of Magnaporthe oryzae to hybrid Rice in Sichuan, China. Rice Sci 19:320–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672-6308(12)60057-2
Bharathkumar S, Gnanamanickam SS, Jitendra K, Archana B, Yasin BS, Amit D, Deepak KN (2014) Differential disease reaction of rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae prevailing in India on rice cultivars. Bioscan 9:1257–1262 http://www.thebioscan.in/Journal%20Supplement/93Sup25%20S.%20BHARATHKUMAR.pdf
Busungu C, Taura S, Sakagami JI, Ichitani K (2016) Identification and linkage analysis of a new rice bacterial blight resistance gene from XM14, a mutant line from IR24. Breed Sci 66:636–645. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.16062
Chen X, Wei S, Yan Q, Huang F, Ma Z, Li R, Cen Z, Yan W, Li K (2019) Virulence and DNA fingerprinting analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae identify a new pathotype in Guangxi, South China. J Basic Microbiol 59:1082–1091. https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201900354|
Chukwu SC, Rafii MY, Ramlee SI, Ismail SI, Hasan MM, Oladosu YA, Magaji UG, Akos I, Olalekan KK (2019) Bacterial leaf blight resistance in rice: a review of conventional breeding to molecular approach. Mol Bio Rep 46:1519–1532. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04584-2
Cohen SP, Liu H, Argueso CT, Pereira A, Cruz CV, Verdier V, Leach JE (2017) RNA-Seq analysis reveals insight into enhanced rice Xa7-mediated bacterial blight resistance at high temperature. PloS one 12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187625
Cruz CM, Bai J, Oña I, Leung H, Nelson RJ, Mew TW, Leach JE (2000) Predicting durability of a disease resistance gene based on an assessment of the fitness loss and epidemiological consequences of avirulence gene mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13500–13505. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.250271997
Deng WL, Lin HA, Shih YC, Kuo CC, Tzeng JY, Liu LY, Huang ST, Huang CM, Chung CL (2016) Genotypic and pathotypic diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains in Taiwan. J Phytopathol 164:745–759. https://doi.org/10.1111/jph.12495|
Furuya N, Taura S, Goto T, Thuy BT, Ton PH, Tsuchiya K, Yoshimura A (2012) Diversity in virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae from northern Vietnam. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly: JARQ 46:329–338. https://doi.org/10.6090/JARQ.46.329
Gautam RK, Singh PK, Sakthivel K, Srikumar M, Kumar N, Kumar K, Singh AK, Roy SD (2015) Analysis of pathogenic diversity of the rice bacterial blight pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) in the Andaman Islands and identification of effective resistance genes. J Phytopathol 163:423–432. https://doi.org/10.1111/jph.12338|
Habarurema I, Edema R, Gibson P, Lamo J, Asea G, Séré Y, Gasore ER (2013) Population diversity of rice bacterial leaf blight isolates in Uganda. Asian J Plant Sci Res 3:1–9 http://www.dspace.mak.ac.ug/handle/10570/4583
Jeung JU, Heu SG, Shin MS, Vera Cruz CM, Jena KK (2006) Dynamics of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae populations in Korea and their relationship to known bacterial blight resistance genes. Phytopathology 96:867–875. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-96-0867
Kauffman HE (1973) An improved technique for evaluat-ing resistance of rice varieties to Xanthomonas oryzae. Plant Dis Rep 57:537–541
Kumar I, Maravi AK, Kumar L (2018) Evaluation of near isogenic lines and pyramids against Xoo isolates collected from three different geographical location of Chhattisgarh. J Pharmacogn Phytochem, SPI, pp 1306–1313 http://www.phytojournal.com/archives/2018/vol7issue1S/PartT/SP-7-1-499-444.pdf
Liu H, Yang W, Hu B, Liu F (2007) Virulence analysis and race classification of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in China. J Phytopathol 155:129–135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2007.01197.x|
Mishra D, Vishnupriya MR, Anil MG, Konda K, Raj Y, Sonti RV (2013) Pathotype and genetic diversity amongst Indian isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. PLoS One 8:e81996. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081996
Mondal KK, Meena BR, Junaid A, Verma G, Mani C, Majumder D, Khicher M, Kumar S, Banik S (2014) Pathotyping and genetic screening of type III effectors in Indian strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causing bacterial leaf blight of rice. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 86:98–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2014.03.005
Noda T, van Du P, Van EL, Dinh HD, Kaku H (1999) Pathogenicity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains in Vietnam. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 65:293–296. https://doi.org/10.3186/jjphytopath.65.293
Noer Z, Suryanto D (2018) Pathotype profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates from north Sumatera. IOP Conf Ser.: earth. Environ Sci 122:012142 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lisnawita_Lisnawita3/publication/323530887_Pathotype_profile_of_Xanthomonas_oryzae_pv_oryzae_isolates_from_North_Sumatera/links/5aadfbcaa6fdcc1bc0bae7da/Pathotype-profile-of-Xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae-isolates-from-North-Sumatera.pdf
Ogawa T, Yamamoto T, Khush GS, Mew TW (1991) Breeding of near-isogenic lines of rice with single genes for resistance to bacterial blight pathogen (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae). Japan J Breed 41:523–529. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs1951.41.523
Pandey S, Singh B, Kumar J (2014) DNA typing and virulence determination of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae population for the management of bacterial leaf blight of rice in Udham Singh Nagar, India. Eur J Plant Pathol 138:847–862. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-013-0358-5
Pandey S, Bohra A, Singh B, Prasad P, Kumar J (2017) Haplotypic diversity and virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae population infecting the first superfine aromatic basmati hybrid. Proc Natl Acad Sci, India. Sect B Biol Sci 87:1005–1014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-015-0675-x
Saad A, Habibuddin H (2010) Pathotypes and virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae causing bacterial blight disease of rice in peninsular Malaysia. J Trop Agric And Fd Sci 38:257–266 http://jtafs.mardi.gov.my/jtafs/38-2/Xanthomonas%20oryzae.pdf
Suh JP, Noh TH, Kim KY, Kim JJ, Kim YG, Jena KK (2009) Expression levels of three bacterial blight resistance genes against K3a race of Korea by molecular and phenotype analysis in japonica rice (O. sativa L.). J Crop Sci Biotech 12:103–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-009-0103-y
Tuan TQ, Hao LT, Khoa ND (2017) Population diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causing bacterial leaf blight in Rice fields of Can Tho. J Biotecnol in Vietnam 15:753-761. https://doi.org/10.15625/1811-4989/15/4/13419
Wang C, Wen G, Lin X, Liu X, Zhang D (2009) Identification and fine mapping of the new bacterial blight resistance gene, Xa31 (t), in rice. Eur J Plant Pathol 123:235–240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-008-9356-4
Yang SQ, Liu SY, Zhao S, Yu YH, Li RB, Duan CJ, Tang JL, Feng JX (2013) Molecular and pathogenic characterization of new Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains from the coastline region of Fangchenggang city in China. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 29:713–720. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-012-1227-7
Yugander A, Sundaram RM, Ladhalakshmi D, Hajira SK, Prakasam V, Prasad MS, Madhav MS, Babu VR, Laha GS (2017) Virulence profiling of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates, causing bacterial blight of rice in India. Eur J Plant Pathol 149:171–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-017-1176-y
This research is part of a rice development project financed by the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Selangor (Project No. P21003004010001). The authors would like to acknowledge that the Philippines International Rice Research Institute, has provided the IRBB near-isogenic lines (NILs). The authors are also grateful to Ms.Nurshamiza Mat Yusoff for her technical assistance in the glasshouse at MARDI Seberang Perai.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Kogeethavani, R., Fatin, N., Suzianti, I. et al. Characterization of pathogenic variability of Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae isolates causing bacterial leaf blight disease in Malaysian rice granaries. Australasian Plant Pathol. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13313-020-00771-z
- Xanthomonas oryzae
- Near isogenic lines
- Rice differentials
- Virulence interaction
- Xa genes rice bacterial blight