IDF (2011) Guideline for management of postmeal glucose in diabetes. http://www.idf.org. Accessed March 2019.
Davies MJ, D’Alessio DA, Fradkin J, Kernan WN, Mathieu C, Mingrone G7, Rossing P, Tsapas A, Wexler DJ, Buse JB. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2018;41(12):2669–701. https://doi.org/10.2337/dci18-0033.
Hermansen K, Bohl M, Schioldan AG. Insulin aspart in the management of diabetes mellitus: 15 years of clinical experience. Drugs. 2016;76(1):41–74.
Woerle HJ, Szoke E, Meyer C, Dostou JM, Wittlin SD, Gosmanov NR, Welle SL, Gerich JE. Mechanisms for abnormal postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290(1):E67–77.
Home PD. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rapid-acting insulin analogues and their clinical consequences. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14:780–8.
European Medicines Agency. Summary of the European public assessment report on Fiasp. Amsterdam: EMA; 2017. https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/medicines/human/EPAR/fiasp. Accessed 22 July 2019.
Buckley ST, Kildegaard J, Hoiberg-Nielsen R, Bekker Jeppesen C, Birk Olsen H, Refsgaard HHF, Ludvigsen S, Ribel U, Hostrup S, Sturis J. Mechanistic analysis into the mode(s) of action of niacinamide in faster‐acting insulin aspart. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2016;18(Suppl. 1):A116.
Heise T, Pieber TR, Danne T, Erichsen L, Haahr H. A pooled analysis of clinical pharmacology trials investigating the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of fast-acting insulin aspart in adults with type 1 diabetes. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017;56:551–9.
Fath M, Danne T, Biester T, Erichsen L, Kordonouri O, Haahr H. Faster-acting insulin aspart provides faster onset and greater early exposure vs insulin aspart in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2017;18:903–10.
Shiramoto M, Nishida T, Hansen AK, Haahr H. Fast-acting insulin aspart in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes: Faster onset, higher early exposure and greater early glucose-lowering effect relative to insulin aspart. J Diabetes Investig. 2018;9:303–10.
Heise T, Hovelmann U, Zijlstra E, Stender-Petersen K, Jacobsen JB, Haahr H. A comparison of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties between faster-acting insulin aspart and insulin aspart in elderly subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Drugs Aging. 2017;34:29–38.
Russell-Jones D, Bode BW, De Block C, et al. Fast-acting insulin aspart improves glycemic control in basal-bolus treatment for type 1 diabetes: results of a 26-week multicentre, active-controlled, treat-to-target, randomized, parallel-group trial (onset 1). Diabetes Care. 2017;40:943–50.
Mathieu C, Bode BW, Franek E, et al. Efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart in comparison with insulin aspart in type 1 diabetes (onset 1): a 52-week, randomized, treat-to-target, phase 3 trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20:1148–55.
Buse JB, Carlson AL, Komatsu M, et al. Fast-acting insulin aspart versus insulin aspart in the setting of insulin degludec-treated type 1 diabetes: efficacy and safety from a randomized double-blind trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20:2885–93.
De Block C, Carlson AL, Rose L, Gondolf T, Gorst-Rasmussen A, Lane W. Hypoglycemia with mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart vs. insulin aspart across two large type 1 diabetes trials. Diabetes. 2018;67:LB27.
Bode B, Iotova V, Kovarenko M, Laffel LM, Rao PV, Deenadayalan S, Ekelund M, Larsen SF, Danne T. Efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart compared with insulin aspart, both in combination with insulin degludec, in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the onset 7 trial. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(7):1255–62. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-0009.
ClinicalTrials.gov. Comparison of FiAsp and Aspart During Postprandial Exercise in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03659799. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03659799. Accessed Aug 2019.
Zijlstra E, Demissie M, Graungaard T, Heise T, Nosek L, Bode B. Investigation of pump compatibility of fast-acting insulin aspart in subjects with type 1 diabetes. J Diabet Sci Technol. 2018;12:145–51.
Bode BW, Johnson JA, Hyveled L, Tamer SC, Demissie M. Improved postprandial glycemic control with faster-acting insulin aspart in patients with type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2017;19:25–33.
Klonoff D, Evans ML, Lane W, et al. A randomized, multicentre trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adults with type 1 diabetes (onset 5). Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.13610.
ClinicalTrials.gov. Closed-Loop with Faster Aspart in Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03212950. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03212950. Accessed Aug 2019.
EU Clinical Trials Register. Dual-Hormone Closed-Loop Glucose Control in Type 1 Diabetes. EudraCT number: 2019-001631-31. https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2019-001631-31/DK. Accessed Aug 2019.
Bowering K, Case C, Harvey J, et al. Faster aspart versus insulin aspart as part of a basal-bolus regimen in inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes: the onset 2 trial. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:951–7.
Rodbard HW, Tripathy D, Vidrio Velázquez M, Demissie M, Tamer SC, Piletič M. Adding fast-acting insulin aspart to basal insulin significantly improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, 18-week, open-label, phase 3 trial (onset 3). Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017;19(10):1389–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12955.
Brod M, Nikolajsen A, Weatherall J, Pfeiffer KM. Understanding post-prandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a web-based survey in Germany, the UK, and USA. Diabetes Ther. 2016;7:335–48.
Peters A, Van Name MA, Thorsted BL, Piltoft JS, Tamborlane WV. Postprandial dosing of bolus insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study using data from the T1D Exchange Registry. Endocr Pract. 2017;23:1201–9.
Heise T, Meneghini LF. Insulin stacking versus therapeutic accumulation: understanding the differences. Endocr Pract. 2014;20:75–83.
Schaper NC, Nikolajsen A, Sandberg A, Buchs S, Bogelund M. Timing of insulin injections, adherence, and glycemic control in a multinational sample of people with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis. Diabetes Ther. 2017;8:1319–29.
Misso ML, Egberts KJ, Page M, O’Connor D, Shaw J. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple insulin injections for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;CD005103.
Pickup JC, Reznik Y, Sutton AJ. Glycemic control during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily insulin injections in type 2 diabetes: individual patient data meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:715–22.
Peters TM, Haidar A. Dual-hormone artificial pancreas: benefits and limitations compared with single-hormone systems. Diabet Med. 2018;35:450–9.