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Diabetes Therapy

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 613–621 | Cite as

Author Correction: Effectiveness and Safety of a Novel Care Model for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes at 1 Year: An Open-Label, Non-Randomized, Controlled Study

  • Sarah J. Hallberg
  • Amy L. McKenzie
  • Paul T. Williams
  • Nasir H. Bhanpuri
  • Anne L. Peters
  • Wayne W. Campbell
  • Tamara L. Hazbun
  • Brittanie M. Volk
  • James P. McCarter
  • Stephen D. Phinney
  • Jeff S. Volek
Open Access
Author Correction
  • 755 Downloads

Author Correction to: Diabetes Ther  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-018-0373-9

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.

The presentation of Table 1 and ESM 1 have been published incorrectly. Corrected units have been provided for LDL-C values. The corrected Table 1 in text is given below and ESM Table 1 is available online.
Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the recruited sample, completers, and participants with missing data by treatment arm

 

All

Completers with data

Dropout or missing data

Completers–dropouts

N

Mean (SD) or ± SE

N

Mean (SD) or ± SE

N

Mean (SD) or ± SE

Mean ± SE

Age (years)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

53.75 (8.35)

218

54.09 (8.35)

44

52.09 (8.25)

2.0 ± 1.37

 Usual carea

87

52.33 (9.52)

78

51.71 (9.62)

9

57.78 (6.85)

− 6.07 ± 2.53*

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

1.42 ± 1.14

 

2.38 ± 1.23*

 

− 5.69 ± 2.6*

 

Female (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

66.79 ± 2.91

218

65.14 ± 3.23

44

75.0 ± 6.53

− 9.86 ± 7.28

 Usual carea

87

58.62 ± 5.28

78

60.26 ± 5.54

9

44.44 ± 16.56

15.81 ± 17.47

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

8.17 ± 6.03

 

4.88 ± 6.41

 

30.56 ± 17.8

 

African American (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

6.87 ± 1.56

218

5.96 ± 1.6

44

11.36 ± 4.78

− 5.4 ± 5.05

 Usual carea

87

0.0 ± 0.0

78

0.0 ± 0.0

9

0.0 ± 0.0

0.0 ± 0.0

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

6.87 ± 1.56§

 

5.96 ± 1.6‡

 

11.36 ± 4.78*

 

Years with type 2 diabetes

       

 CCI-all educationa

261

8.44 (7.22)

217

8.4 (7.28)

44

8.61 (6.97)

− 0.21 ± 1.16

 Usual carea

71

7.85 (7.32)

71

7.85 (7.32)

 

Not collected

 

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.59 (0.9)

 

0.56 ± 1.0

   

Beta-hydroxybutyrate (mmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

248

0.17 (0.15)

186

0.17 (0.15)

62

0.19 (0.16)

− 0.02 ± 0.02

 Usual carea

79

0.15 (0.13)

59

0.14 (0.12)

20

0.17 (0.15)

− 0.03 ± 0.03

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.02 ± 0.02

 

0.02 ± 0.02

 

0.02 ± 0.04

 

Hemoglobin A1c (mmol mol−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

59.55 (16.4)

204

58.35 (15.3)

58

63.49 (19.57)

− 28.66 ± 2.73

 Usual carea

87

59.99 (19.24)

72

61.08 (19.89)

15

54.52 (14.87)

− 16.97 ± 4.48

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.44 ± 2.3

 

− 2.73 ± 2.62

 

8.96 ± 4.59*

 

Hemoglobin A1c (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

7.60 (1.50)

204

7.49 (1.4)

58

7.96 (1.79)

− 0.47 ± 0.25

 Usual carea

87

7.64 (1.76)

72

7.74 (1.82)

15

7.14 (1.36)

0.60 ± 0.41

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.04 ± 0.21

 

− 0.25 ± 0.24

 

0.82 ± 0.42*

 

Fasting glucose (mmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

258

8.92 (3.41)

202

8.8 (3.28)

56

9.36 (3.83)

− 0.55 ± 0.56

 Usual carea

86

8.67 (4.03)

71

8.71 (3.96)

15

8.5 (4.5)

0.21 ± 1.25

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.25 ± 0.48

 

0.1 ± 0.52

 

0.86 ± 1.27

 

Insulin all (pmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

248

198.35 (165.85)

186

197.65 (167.17)

62

200.5 (163.21)

− 2.85 ± 24.1

 Usual carea

79

202.17 (172.58)

59

206.68 (187.93)

20

188.77 (119.18)

17.99 ± 36.18

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 3.82 ± 22.09

 

− 9.1 ± 27.36

 

11.74 ± 33.75

 

C-peptide (nmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

247

1.45 (0.71)

185

1.47 (0.72)

62

1.39 (0.69)

0.07 ± 0.1

 Usual carea

79

1.38 (0.82)

59

1.35 (0.82)

20

1.49 (0.84)

− 0.14 ± 0.22

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.07 ± 0.1

 

0.12 ± 0.12

 

− 0.09 ± 0.21

 

HOMA-IR (insulin derived), all

       

 CCI-all educationa

244

11.8 (13.14)

179

11.19 (12.75)

65

13.48 (14.12)

− 2.3 ± 1.99

 Usual carea

78

10.64 (9.12)

56

11.31 (10.05)

22

8.94 (6.03)

2.36 ± 1.86

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

1.16 ± 1.33

 

− 0.12 ± 1.65

 

4.54 ± 2.17

 

HOMA-IR (C-peptide derived)

       

 CCI-all educationa

244

11.52 (7.15)

170

11.44 (6.26)

69

11.72 (9.04)

− 0.28 ± 1.19

 Usual carea

72

11.16 (7.26)

47

10.56 (7.70)

25

12.29 (6.33)

− 1.73 ± 1.69

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.36 ± 0.97

 

0.88 ± 1.22

 

− 0.56 ± 1.67

 

Weight-clinic (kg)

       

 CCI-all educationa

257

116.51 (25.94)

184

115.42 (24.62)

73

119.25 (29.01)

− 3.83 ± 3.85

 Usual carea

83

105.63 (22.15)

69

106.79 (22.18)

14

99.94 (21.86)

6.84 ± 6.42

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

10.87 ± 2.92§

 

8.63 ± 3.23†

 

19.3 ± 6.76†

 

BMI (kg m−2)

       

 CCI-all educationa

257

40.43 (8.81)

184

39.87 (7.88)

73

41.82 (10.75)

− 1.94 ± 1.39

 Usual carea

83

36.72 (7.26)

69

37.14 (7.62)

14

34.66 (4.8)

2.48 ± 1.58

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

3.7 ± 0.97‡

 

2.73 ± 1.09†

 

7.15 ± 1.8§

 

Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)

       

 CCI-all educationa

260

131.94 (14.09)

187

132.51 (14.54)

73

130.47 (12.84)

2.05 ± 1.84

 Usual carea

79

129.8 (13.61)

67

128.72 (12.65)

12

135.83 (17.49)

− 7.12 ± 5.28

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

2.14 ± 1.76

 

3.8 ± 1.88*

 

− 5.37 ± 5.27

 

Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)

       

 CCI-all educationa

260

82.09 (8.25)

187

81.59 (8.05)

73

83.37 (8.67)

− 1.78 ± 1.17

 Usual carea

79

82.0 (8.93)

67

81.1 (8.07)

12

87.0 (11.95)

− 5.9 ± 3.59

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.09 ± 1.13

 

0.49 ± 1.15

 

− 3.63 ± 3.6

 

Total cholesterol (mmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

247

4.76 (1.07)

186

4.68 (1.03)

61

4.99 (1.15)

− 0.31 ± 0.17

 Usual carea

79

4.76 (1.19)

59

4.72 (1.26)

20

4.88 (0.93)

− 0.16 ± 0.27

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.0 ± 0.15

 

− 0.04 ± 0.18

 

0.11 ± 0.26

 

LDL-cholesterol (mmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

232

2.66 (0.85)

172

2.59 (0.84)

60

2.84 (0.86)

− 0.24 ± 0.13

 Usual carea

70

2.63 (0.94)

48

2.60 (0.98)

22

2.69 (0.85)

− 0.09 ± 0.23

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.03 ± 0.13

 

− 0.01 ± 0.16

 

0.14 ± 0.21

 

Apo B (g L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

248

1.05 (0.29)

186

1.03 (0.28)

62

1.1 (0.31)

− 0.06 ± 0.04

 Usual carea

79

1.07 (0.28)

59

1.06 (0.3)

20

1.11 (0.24)

− 0.05 ± 0.07

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.02 ± 0.04

 

− 0.02 ± 0.04

 

− 0.01 ± 0.07

 

HDL-C (mmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

247

1.09 (0.35)

186

1.1 (0.36)

61

1.08 (0.32)

0.02 ± 0.05

 Usual carea

79

0.97 (0.29)

59

0.96 (0.29)

20

1.02 (0.29)

− 0.06 ± 0.08

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.12 ± 0.04†

 

0.14 ± 0.05†

 

0.06 ± 0.08

 

Triglycerides (mmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

247

2.23 (1.62)

186

2.27 (1.73)

61

2.11 (1.25)

0.15 ± 0.2

 Usual carea

79

3.2 (4.53)

59

3.36 (5.17)

20

2.72 (1.56)

0.64 ± 0.76

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.97 ± 0.52*

 

− 1.09 ± 0.68

 

− 0.61 ± 0.38*

 

Total/HDL-cholesterol

       

 CCI-all educationa

247

4.72 (1.7)

186

4.65 (1.72)

61

4.93 (1.65)

− 0.28 ± 0.25

 Usual carea

79

5.37 (2.42)

59

5.44 (2.63)

20

5.17 (1.72)

0.27 ± 0.52

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.65 ± 0.29*

 

− 0.79 ± 0.36*

 

− 0.24 ± 0.44

 

hsC-reactive protein (nmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

249

81.33 (138.0)

193

85.62 (153.05)

56

66.76 (62.1)

18.86 ± 13.81

 Usual carea

85

84.67 (82.1)

70

86.95 (86.95)

15

73.81 (73.81)

13.14 ± 19.14

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 3.24 ± 12.48

 

− 1.33 ± 15.05

 

− 7.05 ± 18.19

 

ALT (µkat L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

257

0.51 (0.38)

201

0.52 (0.41)

56

0.47 (0.27)

0.05 ± 0.05

 Usual carea

86

0.46 (0.33)

71

0.45 (0.34)

15

0.51 (0.29)

− 0.05 ± 0.09

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.05 ± 0.04

 

0.07 ± 0.05

 

− 0.04 ± 0.08

 

AST (µkat L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

257

0.4 (0.25)

201

0.41 (0.28)

56

0.36 (0.15)

0.04 ± 0.03

 Usual carea

86

0.4 (0.32)

71

0.39 (0.35)

15

0.42 (0.16)

− 0.03 ± 0.06

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.0 ± 0.04

 

0.01 ± 0.05

 

− 0.06 ± 0.05

 

Alkaline phosphatase (µkat L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

256

1.24 (0.37)

200

1.24 (0.37)

56

1.23 (0.36)

0.01 ± 0.05

 Usual carea

86

1.29 (0.44)

71

1.31 (0.45)

15

1.22 (0.38)

0.09 ± 0.11

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.05 ± 0.05

 

− 0.07 ± 0.06

 

0.01 ± 0.11

 

Serum creatinine (µmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

258

77.79 (21.22)

202

77.79 (20.33)

56

81.33 (24.75)

− 3.54 ± 3.54

 Usual carea

86

80.44 (22.1)

71

78.68 (20.33)

15

86.63 (25.64)

− 7.07 ± 7.07

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 1.77 ± 2.65

 

− 1.77 ± 2.65

 

− 5.3 ± 7.07

 

BUN (mmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

258

6.03 (2.34)

202

6.06 (2.15)

56

5.9 (2.96)

0.16 ± 0.42

 Usual carea

86

5.73 (2.23)

71

5.59 (1.86)

15

6.38 (3.52)

− 0.79 ± 0.94

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.3 ± 0.28

 

0.47 ± 0.27

 

− 0.47 ± 0.99

 

eGFR (mL s−1 m−2)

       

 CCI-all educationa

258

1.34 (0.23)

202

1.35 (0.22)

56

1.33 (0.25)

0.02 ± 0.04

 Usual carea

86

1.32 (0.23)

71

1.34 (0.22)

15

1.26 (0.28)

0.08 ± 0.08

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.02 ± 0.03

 

0.02 ± 0.03

 

0.03 ± 0.08

 

Anion gap (mmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

257

6.83 (1.67)

201

6.79 (1.7)

56

6.98 (1.53)

− 0.19 ± 0.24

 Usual carea

86

6.93 (1.82)

71

6.92 (1.82)

15

7.0 (1.89)

− 0.08 ± 0.53

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.1 ± 0.22

 

− 0.12 ± 0.25

 

− 0.02 ± 0.53

 

Uric acid (µmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

261

347.99 (86.85)

202

348.58 (86.25)

59

346.2 (89.82)

2.38 ± 13.09

 Usual carea

85

333.12 (87.44)

71

330.74 (85.66)

14

345.01 (98.75)

− 14.28 ± 28.55

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

14.87 ± 10.71

 

17.25 ± 11.9

 

1.19 ± 29.15

 

TSH (mIU L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

259

2.32 (1.74)

200

2.31 (1.79)

59

2.38 (1.55)

− 0.07 ± 0.24

 Usual carea

85

1.97 (1.16)

70

2.09 (1.16)

15

1.38 (1.03)

0.71 ± 0.3*

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.36 ± 0.17*

 

0.21 ± 0.19

 

1.0 ± 0.33†

 

Free T4 (pmol L−1)

       

 CCI-all educationa

260

11.84 (2.19)

202

11.84 (2.32)

58

11.58 (2.19)

0.26 ± 0.39

 Usual carea

86

11.33 (3.73)

71

11.33 (3.86)

15

10.94 (2.32)

0.39 ± 0.77

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.51 ± 0.39

 

0.51 ± 0.51

 

0.64 ± 0.64

 

Any diabetes medication, excluding metformin (%)

    

 CCI-all educationa

262

56.87 ± 3.06

218

55.50 ± 3.37

44

63.64 ± 7.25

− 8.13 ± 8.00

 Usual carea

87

66.67 ± 5.05

73

68.49 ± 5.44

14

57.14 ± 13.23

11.35 ± 14.32

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 9.80 ± 5.91

 

− 12.99± 6.39*

 

6.49 ± 15.08

 

Sulfonylurea (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

23.66 ± 2.63

218

24.31 ± 2.91

44

20.45 ± 6.08

3.86 ± 6.74

 Usual carea

87

24.14 ± 4.59

73

23.29 ± 4.95

14

28.57 ± 12.07

− 5.28 ± 13.05

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 0.48 ± 5.29

 

1.02 ± 5.74

 

− 8.12± 13.52

 

Insulin (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

29.77 ± 2.82

218

28.44 ± 3.06

44

36.36 ± 7.25

− 7.92 ± 7.87

 Usual carea

87

45.98 ± 5.34

78

50.0 ± 5.66

9

11.11 ± 10.48

38.89 (1.91)‡

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 16.21 ± 6.04†

 

− 21.56 ± 6.43‡

 

25.25 ± 12.74*

 

Thiazolidinedione (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

1.53 ± 0.76

218

1.83 ± 0.91

44

0.0 ± 0.0

1.83 ± 0.91*

 Usual carea

87

1.15 ± 1.14

73

1.37 ± 1.36

14

0.0 ± 0.0

1.37 ± 1.36

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

0.38 ± 1.37

 

0.46 ± 1.64

 

0.0 ± 0.0

 

SGLT-2 (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

10.31 ± 1.88

218

10.55 ± 2.08

44

9.09 ± 4.33

1.46 ± 4.81

 Usual carea

87

13.79 ± 3.7

73

15.07 ± 4.19

14

7.14 ± 6.88

7.93 ± 8.06

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 3.48 ± 4.15

 

− 4.52 ± 4.68

 

1.95 ± 8.13*

 

DPP-4 (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

9.92 ± 1.85

218

10.09 ± 2.04

44

9.09 ± 4.33

1.0 ± 4.79

 Usual carea

87

8.05 ± 2.92

73

8.22 ± 3.21

14

7.14 ± 6.88

1.08 ± 7.60

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

1.87 ± 3.45

 

1.87 ± 3.81

 

1.95 ± 8.13

 

GLP-1 (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

13.36 ± 2.1

218

12.84 ± 2.27

44

15.91 ± 5.51

− 3.07 ± 5.96

 Usual carea

87

14.94 ± 3.82

73

16.44 ± 4.34

14

7.14 ± 6.88

9.30 ± 8.14

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

− 1.58 ± 4.36

 

− 3.59 ± 4.89

 

8.77 ± 8.82

 

Metformin (%)

       

 CCI-all educationa

262

71.37 ± 2.79

218

71.56 ± 3.06

44

70.45 ± 6.88

1.11 ± 7.53

 Usual carea

87

60.92 ± 5.23

73

61.64 ± 5.69

14

57.14 ± 13.23

4.50 ± 14.40

  CCI-all vs. usual careb

 

10.45 ± 5.93

 

9.92 ± 6.46

 

13.31 ± 14.91

 

See Table S1 (electronic supplemental materials) for CCI-web, CCI-onsite, and additional comparisons

aMean and standard deviations for continuous variables, percents and standard errors for categorical variables

bDifference between means or percentages ± 1 standard error of the difference. Significant baseline difference between means or percentages at 0.05 > P ≥ 0.01 (*); 0.01 > P ≥ 0.001 (†); 0.001 > P ≥ 0.0001 (‡); and P < 0.0001 (§)

Notes

Open Access

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Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 206 kb)

Copyright information

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah J. Hallberg
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amy L. McKenzie
    • 2
  • Paul T. Williams
    • 3
  • Nasir H. Bhanpuri
    • 2
  • Anne L. Peters
    • 4
  • Wayne W. Campbell
    • 5
  • Tamara L. Hazbun
    • 1
  • Brittanie M. Volk
    • 2
  • James P. McCarter
    • 2
    • 6
  • Stephen D. Phinney
    • 2
  • Jeff S. Volek
    • 2
    • 7
  1. 1.Medically Supervised Weight LossIndiana University Health ArnettLafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Virta HealthSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Independent ConsultantLafayetteUSA
  4. 4.Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Department of Nutrition SciencePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  6. 6.Department of GeneticsWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  7. 7.Department of Human SciencesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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