Skip to main content

A retrospective evaluation of radiation dose associated with low dose FDG protocols in whole-body PET/CT

Abstract

The objective of the study is to retrospectively measure patient radiation dose resulting from whole body X-ray CT and FDG PET studies using a low-dose protocol performed on the Siemens Biograph mCT scanner. A total of 483 patient studies were reviewed. For each, the CT dose-length product was used to estimate radiation dose to the patient as a result of the whole body X-ray CT component of the PET/CT study. The net injected FDG dose was used to calculate the whole body effective dose based on ICRP recommendations. Dose calculations were also modified to take into account individual patient weight. The total effective dose received by each patient was taken as the sum of the PET and CT components of the study. The mean effective dose from the CT component of the diagnostic study was found to be 8.2 mSv (3.4–23.4 mSv), for a CT protocol of 120 kVp and effective tube current–time product of 80 mAs with automatic exposure control. For an average injected FDG activity of 304 MBq the mean PET effective dose was found to be 6.3 mSv when using the ICRP standard models, or 6.0 mSv when scaling effective dose to individual patient weight or patient blood volume. The average total effective dose across the entire patient cohort for a combined PET/CT study was found to be ~14.5 mSv (9.6–29.8 mSv). Low-dose protocols for whole-body PET/CT scanning result in an effective radiation dose to the patient of approximately 14.5 mSv. Additional reductions through the use of iterative CT reconstruction and optimized low-dose FDG protocols could see total effective doses for whole-body PET/CT fall to below 10 mSv.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Brix G, Lechel U, Glatting G, Ziegler SI, Munzing W, Muller S, Beyer T (2005) Radiation exposure of patients undergoing whole-body dual-modality 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations. J Nucl Med 46(4):608–613

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Yu L, Liu X, Leng S, Kofler JM, Ramirez-Giraldo JC, Qu M, Christner J, Fletcher JG, McCollough CH (2009) Radiation dose reduction in computed tomography: techniques and future perspective. Imaging Med 1(1):65–84

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Huda W, Ogden KM, Khorasani MR (2008) Converting dose-length product to effective dose at CT. Radiology 248(3):995–1003

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Huda W, Magill D, He W (2011) CT effective dose per dose length product using ICRP 103 weighting factors. Med Phys 38(3):1261–1265

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. (ICRP) ICoRP (2008) Radiation dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals. ICRP publication 106 (addendum to ICRP publication 53). Ann ICRP 38

  6. Hays MT, Watson EE, Thomas SR, Stabin M (2002) MIRD dose estimate report no. 19: radiation absorbed dose estimates from 18F-FDG. J Nucl Med 43(2):210–214

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Lemmens HJM, Bernstein DP, Brodsky JB (2006) Estimating blood volume in obese and morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg 16:773–776

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bailey DL, Bailey EA, Schembri GP, Roach PJ (2010) A method for clinical protocol optimisation on a high sensitivity time-of-flight pet scanner. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imag 37(S2):S333 (abstract)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Huang B, Law MW-M, Khong P-L (2009) Whole body PET/CT scanning: estimation of radiation dose and cancer risk. Radiology 251(1):166–174

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Wu TH, Huang YH, Lee JJ (2004) Radiation exposure during transmission measurements: comparison between CT- and germanium-based techniques with a current pet scanner. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imag 31(1):38–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Khamwan K, Krisanachinda A, Pasawang P (2010) The determination of patient dose from 18F-FDG PET/CT examination. Radiat Prot Dosim 141(1):50–55

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Pontana F, Duhamel A, Pagniez J, Flohr T, Faivre J-P, Hachulla A-L, Reny J, Remy-Jardin M (2011) Chest computed tomography using iterative reconstruction vs filtered back projection (part 2): image quality of low-dose ct examinations in 80 patients. Eur Radiol 21(3):636–643

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kathy P. Willowson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Willowson, K.P., Bailey, E.A. & Bailey, D.L. A retrospective evaluation of radiation dose associated with low dose FDG protocols in whole-body PET/CT. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 35, 49–53 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13246-011-0119-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13246-011-0119-8

Keywords

  • FDG
  • Dosimetry
  • PET
  • CT