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Low carbohydrate high fat flour: its rheology, bread making, physico-sensory and staling characteristics

Abstract

A low carbohydrate and high fat (LCHF) flour was developed by combining almond flour, desiccated coconut flour, defatted soya flour, dry gluten powder, psyllium husk and skimmed milk powder. Determination of rheological, bread making, nutritional, and staling characteristics of LCHF flour in comparison with wheat flour (WF) was studied. The results showed that LCHF flour had lower amylograph pasting temperature (31.6 °C), peak viscosity (200 BU), farinograph dough stability (0.8 min), and bread volume (315 ml) compared to WF (61.0 °C; 782 BU; 8.7 min; and 525 ml) respectively. The use of additive mixes such as fungal alpha-amylase, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and xanthan gum, improved the volume and texture of the LCHF bread. Scanning electron microscope images showed little or no presence of starch granules in LCHF dough and bread. Differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated that, during storage (1–5 days), the enthalpy for gelatinization of endotherm starch increased (0.71–3.40 j/g) in WF bread, however, in LCHF bread this increase was lesser (0.53 to 2.2 j/g) indicating slower staling rate in LCHF bread. The LCHF bread showed lower carbohydrate (13.7%), in-vitro starch digestibility (17.3%) and staling rate, higher protein (22.51%), fat (11.01%), and medium-chain fatty acids than WF bread (51.9%; 38.2%; 12.57%; 3.78%) respectively. The results showed that the developed product would be beneficial for people suffering from diabetics and obesity.

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Availability of data/material

The data is available upon a reasonable request from corresponding author.

Abbreviations

LCHF:

Low carbohydrate high fat

WF:

Wheat flour

ACSGPM:

Almond flour, desiccated coconut flour, defatted soya flour, dry gluten powder, psyllium husk and skimmed milk powder

AM:

Additive mix

FAA:

Fungal alpha-amylase

SSL:

Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate

XAN:

Xanthan gum

rpm:

Rounds per minute

BU:

Brabender unit

IVSD:

In-vitro starch digestibility

DSC:

Differential scanning calorimetry

T0 :

Onset temperature

Tp :

Peak temperature

Te :

End temperature

∆H:

Enthalpy

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Authors

Contributions

SR: Formal Analysis, Investigation; Tabulation, Writing Original Draft; AKK: Investigation, Methodology, Data curation, Validation, Supervision, Statistical analysis; Writing: Review & editing; ID: Conceptualization, Methodology, Supervision, Writing: Review & editing.

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Correspondence to K. Ashwath Kumar.

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D. Indrani: Deceased

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Rao, S., Ashwath Kumar, K. & Indrani, D. Low carbohydrate high fat flour: its rheology, bread making, physico-sensory and staling characteristics. J Food Sci Technol 59, 2220–2230 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-05235-w

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-05235-w

Keywords

  • Low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) flour
  • Coconut flour
  • Rheology
  • Bread
  • Storage study
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)