Metabolite characterization of different palm date varieties and the correlation with their NO inhibitory activity, texture and sweetness
The aim of this study was to examine the variation in metabolite constituents of five commercial varieties of date fruits; Ajwa, Safawi and Ambar which originated from Madinah, the Iranian Bam and Tunisian Deglet Noor. The differences of metabolome were investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed clear separation between the date varieties. The Tunisian Deglet Noor demonstrated distinct cluster from the rest of the palm date samples based on the metabolite composition as shown by the pattern observed in Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA) and PCA. Deglet Noor exhibited a significant higher level of sucrose (δ 5.40) and fructose (δ 4.16) in comparison with the other four varieties which can be associated with the distinctive sweet taste of this variety. Dates originated from Madinah and Tunisia exhibited a contrast manner in the amount of xylose and moisture content. These two aspects may contribute towards the soft texture of Tunisian dates. All Madinah dates were found to contain phenolic compounds which were well established as great antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Ajwa dates exerted greater effect in inhibiting the generation of nitric oxide (NO) from the stimulated RAW264.7 cells at 95.37% inhibition. Succinic acid was suggested to have the most significant correlation with the trend of NO inhibitory shown by the selected date palm varieties.
KeywordsPhoenix dactylifera Ajwa dates 1H-NMR spectroscopy RAW cells Nitric oxide inhibitory activity
The authors are gratefully acknowledged support by the Scientific Chairs Unit, Taibah University. The first author also gratefully acknowledges support from Universiti Putra Malaysia under Research University Grant Scheme (RUGS) (9301700) for funding her study under Graduate Research Fellowship.
F.A. and N.H.L. conceived of and designed the experiments. N.A.A.H. and A.M. performed the experiments. N.A.A.H. and M.M. analyzed the data. K.S. and I.S.I. contributed with reagents/materials/analysis and tools. N.A.A.H., N.H.L. and F.A. wrote the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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