Trans fats—sources, health risks and alternative approach - A review

Abstract

Trans fatty acids have the presence of one or more double bonds in the trans configuration instead of the usual cis configuration. They are desired by Vanaspati industry as they impart firmness to margarines and plasticity as well as emulsion stability to shortenings. Research has proved the direct connection of trans fatty acids with cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, shortening of pregnancy period, risks of preeclampsia, disorders of nervous system and vision in infants, colon cancer, diabetes, obesity and allergy. In light of these new findings trans fatty intake should be zero and new technology of hydrogenation of oils is to be developed which produce zero trans fatty acids at the same time preserve the desirable properties contributed by trans fatty acids to the hydrogenated oils. Presently in India there is no system to monitor and regulate the amount of trans fats in processed foods and hence a stringent food law is immediately required.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Aggarwal A, Gupta R, Varma K, Mathur B (2008) High trans fatty acid content in common Indian fast foods. Nutr Food Sci 38(6):564–569

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Aro A, Jauhiainen M, Partanen R, Salminen I, Mutanen M (1997) Stearic acid, trans fatty acids, and dairy fat: effects on serum and lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein (a), and lipid transfer proteins in health subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1419–1426

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Ascherio A, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Master C, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (1994) Trans fatty acid intake and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation 89:94–101

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Berghaus TM, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B (1998) Fatty acid composition of lipid classes in maternal and cord Plasma at birth. Eur J Pediatr 157:763–768

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Caggiula AW, Mustad VA (1997) Effects of dietary fat and fatty acids on coronary artery disease risk and total and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations: epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1597S–1610S

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Elias SL, Innis SM (2001) Infant plasma trans, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids are related to maternal plasma fatty acids, length of gestation, and birth weight and length. Am J Clin Nutr 73:807–814

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. FSSA (2010) Food Safety and Standards Authority of India Proposes Regulation of Trans Fatty Acids (TFAs) in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs) http://www.fssai.gov.in/Website/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=SvU1nfLZRrc%3D&tabid=94. Accessed 10 November 2010

  8. Ghafoorunissa G (2008) Role of trans fatty acids in health and challenges to their reduction in Indian foods. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17:212–215

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Gould AL, Rossouw JE, Santanello NC, Heyse FJ, Furberg CD (1998) Cholesterol reduction yields clinical benefit: impact of stain trials. Circulation 97:946–952

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Hornstra G (2000) Essential fatty acids in mothers and their neonates. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1262S–1269S

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Hunter JE (2001) Studies on effects of dietary fatty acids as related to their position on triglycerides. Lipids 36:655–668

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Judd JT, Clevidence BA, Muesing RA, Wittes J, Sunkin ME, Podczasy JJ (1994) Dietary trans fatty acids: effects of plasma lipids and lipoproteins on healthy men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 59:861–868

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Kavanagh K, Jones KL, Sawyer J, Kelley K, Carr JJ, Wagner JD, Rudel LL (2007) Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. Obes Res 15:1675–1684

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Keys A (1980) Coronary heart disease, serum cholesterol, and the diet. Acta Med Scand 207:153–160

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Kohlmeier L, Simonsen N, Van’t Veer P et al (1997) Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and breast cancer in the European community multicenter study on antioxidants, myocardial infarction, and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 6(9):705–710

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Koletzko B (1992) Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturates and growth in man. Acta Paediatr 81:302–306

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Kromhout D, Lezenne CC (1984) Diet, prevalence and 10-year mortality from coronary heart disease in 871 middle-aged men Zutphen Study. Am J Epidemiol 119:733–741

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Schaefer EJ (1999) Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 340:1933–1940

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Liu WH, Stephen Inbaraj B, Chen BH (2007) Analysis and formation of trans fatty acids in hydrogenated soyabean oil during heating. Food Chem 104(4):1740–1749

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Meijer GW, Weststrate JA (1997) Interesterification of fats in margarine: effect on blood lipids, blood enzymes, and hemostasis parameters. Eur J Clin Nutr 51:527–534

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Mensink RP (2005) Metabolic and health effects of isomeric fatty acids. Curr Opin Lipidol 16:27–30

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Mensink RP, Katan MB (1990) Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects. N Engl J Med 323:439–445

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Folsom AR (2001) Dietary fat and incidence of type II diabetes in older Iowa women. Diabetes Care 24:1528–1535

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (2006) Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 354:1601–1613

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Mozaffarian D, Aro A, Willett WC (2009) Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr 63(2):S5–S21

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Nestel PJ, Noakes M, Belling GB, McArthur R, Clifton PM (1995) Effect on plasma lipids of interesterifying a mix of edible oils. Am J Clin Nutr 62:950–955

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Olsen SF, Sørensen JD, Secher NJ, Hedegaard M, Henriksen TB, Hansen HS, Grant A (1992) Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet 339:1003–1007

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Pax J, Douglass L, Sampugna J (1992) Effects of linolenic and trans-fattyadics on neonatal survival of C57BL/6 Mice. J Nutr Biochem 3(7):342–348

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Ricerus U, Arner P, Brismar K, Vessby B (2002) Treatment with dietary trans10- cis12 conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-specific insulin resistance in obese men with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 25:1516–1521

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Salmeron J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Willett WC (2001) Dietary fat intake and risk of type II diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 73:1019–1026

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Skeaff CM (2009) Feasibility of recommending certain replacement or alternative fats. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:S34–S49

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Slattery ML, Benson J, Ma KN, Schaffer D, Potter JD (2001) Trans-fatty acids and colon cancer. Nutr Cancer 39(2):170–175

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Stender S, Dyerberg J, Hølmer G, Ovesen L, Sandström B (1994) Transfedtsyrers betydning for sundheden. A report from the Danish Nutrition Council. Publ No. 2. Copenhagen 1994

  34. Sugano M, Ikeda I (1996) Metabolic interactions between essential and trans-fatty acids. Curr Opin Lipidol 7:38–42

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Tsuzuki W (2010) Cis–trans isomerization of carbon double bonds in monounsaturated triacylglycerols via generation of free radicals. Chem Phys Lipids 163:741–745

    Google Scholar 

  36. Wahle KWJ, James WPT (1993) Isomeric fatty acids and human health. Eur J Clin Nutr 47:828–839

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Weggemans RM, Rudrum M, Trautwein EA (2004) Intake of ruminant versus industrial trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease—what is the evidence? Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 106:390–397

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Weiland SK, von Mutius E, Hüsing A, Asher MI (1999) On behalf of the ISAAC Steering Committee. Intake of trans fatty acids and prevalence of childhood asthma and allergies in Europe. Lancet 353:2040–2041

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Rosner BA, Sampson LA, Hennekens CH (1993) Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet 341:581–585

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Williams MA, King IB, Sorensen TK, Zingheim RW, Troyer BL, Zebelman AM, Luthy DA (1998) Risk of preeclampsia in relation to elaidic acid (Trans Fatty Acid) in maternal erythrocytes. Gynecol Obstet Investig 46:84–87

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Yli-Jama P, Meyer HE, Ringstad J, Pedersen JI (2002) Serum free fatty acid pattern and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study. J Intern Med 251:19–28

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Zock PL, Vries JHM, Fouw NJ, Katan MB (1995) Positional distribution of fatty acids in dietary triglycerides: effects on fasting blood lipoprotein concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 61:48–55

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bhupender Singh Khatkar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dhaka, V., Gulia, N., Ahlawat, K.S. et al. Trans fats—sources, health risks and alternative approach - A review. J Food Sci Technol 48, 534–541 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0225-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Trans fatty acids
  • Hydrogenation
  • Interesterification
  • Trait-enhanced oils
  • Low density lipoproteins