Impacts of SST Pattern Represented by Ocean Temperature near Ieodo Ocean Research Station on Winter Climate Variation over the Korean Peninsula


This study investigates the impacts of marginal sea surface temperature (SST) on temperature variations over the Korean Peninsula in winter via observation data analysis and numerical model simulation. The marginal SST variability is represented using ocean temperature variations at the Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), wherein the oceanic and atmospheric variables are observed in real-time. The wind efficiency is defined as the Korean temperature response to given winds related to variability of Korean temperature. Based on the strong correlation between SST and land temperature, the wind efficiency is determined to estimate the effect of ocean temperature variation on the land temperature. Results confirmed that the wind efficiency is closely related to the marginal SST by modulating latent and sensible heat flux, which considerably affects the climate variation over the Korean Peninsula. A significant lagged relation between the wind efficiency and marginal SST further supports this finding. The numerical experiment using the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) has strong agreement with the observational analysis. Thus, real-time ocean observational data at IORS can be used as an indicator of climate prediction over the Korean Peninsula.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. Ahn, J.-B., Ryu, J.-H., Cho, E.-H., Park, J.-Y.: A study of correlations between air-temperature and precipitation of Korean and SST around Korean Paninsula. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 327–336 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alexander, M.: Extratropical air–sea interaction, sea surface temperature variability, and the Pacific decadal oscillation. Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary? Geophys. Monogr. 189, 123–148 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alexander, M.A., Bladé, I., Newman, M., Lanzante, J.R., Lau, N.-C., Scott, J.D.: The atmospheric bridge: the influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Clim. 15, 2205–2231 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ando, Y., Ogi, M., Tachibana, Y.: Abnormal winter weather in Japan during 2012 controlled by large-scale atmospheric and small-scale oceanic phenomena. Mon. Weather Rev. 143, 54–63 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Deser, C., Timlin, M.S.: Atmosphere–ocean interaction on weekly timescales in the North Atlantic and Pacific. J. Clim. 10, 393–408 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Emanuel, K.A.: An air-sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part I: steady-state maintenance. J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 585–605 (1986)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ham, Y.-G., Na, H.-Y.: Marginal sea surface temperature variation as a pre-cursor of heat waves over the Korean peninsula. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 445–455 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ham, Y.-G., Na, H.-Y., Oh, S.-H.: Role of sea surface temperature over the Kuroshio extension region on heavy rainfall events over the Korean peninsula. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 19–29 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hirose, N., Kim, C.-H., Yoon, J.-H.: Heat budget in the Japan Sea. J. Oceanogr. 52, 553–574 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Hirose, N., Nishimura, K., Yamamoto, M.: Observational evidence of a warm ocean current preceding a winter teleconnection pattern in the northwestern Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, (2009)

  11. Isobe, A., Beardsley, R.C.: Atmosphere and marginal-sea interaction leading to an interannual variation in cold-air outbreak activity over the Japan Sea. J. Clim. 20, 5707–5714 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Jeong, J., Park, R.: A study of the effects of SST deviations on heavy snowfall over the Yellow Sea. Atmosphere. 23, 161–169 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kalnay, E., et al.: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–472 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Lee, J.h., Pang, I.C., Moon, J.H.: Contribution of the Yellow Sea bottom cold water to the abnormal cooling of sea surface temperature in the summer of 2011. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 121, 3777–3789 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Melville, W.K.: The role of surface-wave breaking in air-sea interaction. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 28, 279–321 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Na, J., Seo, J., Lie, H.-J.: Annual and seasonal variations of the sea surface heat fluxes in the east Asian marginal seas. J. Oceanogr. 55, 257–270 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. NCEP, F.: National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Weather Service/NOAA/US Department of Commerce. 2000, updated daily. In: NCEP FNL Operational Model Global Tropospheric Analyses, continuing from July (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Oh, H., Ha, K.-J., Shim, J.-S.: Analysis for onset of Changma using Ieodo Ocean Research Station data. Atmosphere. 24, 189–196 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Park, K.A., Chung, J.Y., Kim, K.: Sea surface temperature fronts in the east (Japan) sea and temporal variations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, (2004)

  20. Reynolds, R.W., Smith, T.M., Liu, C., Chelton, D.B., Casey, K.S., Schlax, M.G.: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Clim. 20, 5473–5496 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Seo, H., Kwon, Y.O., Park, J.J.: On the effect of the east/Japan Sea SST variability on the North Pacific atmospheric circulation in a regional climate model. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119, 418–444 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Small, R., et al., 2008: Air–sea interaction over ocean fronts and eddies. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 45 274–319

  23. Subrahamanyam, D.B., Rani, S.I., Ramachandran, R., Kunhikrishnan, P., Kumar, B.P.: Impact of wind speed and atmospheric stability on air–sea interface fluxes over the east Asian marginal seas. Atmos. Res. 94, 81–90 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Xie, S.-P.: Satellite observations of cool ocean–atmosphere interaction. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 195–208 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by research grants funded by the Korean Hydrographic and Oceanographic Agency (KHOA), the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF), Korea.

We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of staff members of the KHOA in producing valuable observation data. The model simulations using supercomputer were made possible with a grant from the KHOA.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jong-Seong Kug.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Soon-Il An.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kim, GI., Kug, JS., Byun, DS. et al. Impacts of SST Pattern Represented by Ocean Temperature near Ieodo Ocean Research Station on Winter Climate Variation over the Korean Peninsula. Asia-Pacific J Atmos Sci 56, 429–438 (2020).

Download citation


  • Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS)
  • Marginal Sea
  • Korean climate
  • WRF model
  • Air–sea interaction