Fragile watermarking schemes for image authentication: a survey

  • K. Sreenivas
  • V. Kamkshi Prasad
Original Article


This paper presents a survey of fragile watermarking schemes for image authentication proposed in the past decade. The limited embedding capacity and extent of tampering are some of the important issues among other issues that drive the research in this area. Therefore we have presented in this survey the gist of the fragile watermarking schemes in just enough detail so that the reader may gain a fair idea of the issues, techniques adopted in general to address them and the comparison of results. The general frame work of the fragile watermarking system, different categories of attacks and parameters used to evaluate the schemes are presented in this survey. The comparative analysis and the quantitative comparison of basic schemes and their variations with improvements will help the researchers in quick review of the recent developments in this area.


Fragile watermarking Image security Image authentication Survey 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CSEJNTUHHyderabadIndia

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