We investigated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in a non-clinical student sample. The Chinese FFMQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and the test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the five-factor model. Four of these facets (describing, acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reacting) were shown to have incremental validity in the prediction of depression and anxiety. Our findings suggest that the Chinese version of the FFMQ has acceptable psychometric properties and is a valid instrument for the assessment of mindfulness.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-reports: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191–206.
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15, 329–342.
Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber.
Bian, R., Che, H. S., & Yang, H. (2007). Item parceling strategies in structural equation modeling. Advances in Psychological Science, 15, 567–576.
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.
Bränström, R., Kvillemo, P., Brandberg, Y., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2010). Self-report mindfulness as a mediator of psychological. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 151–161.
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.
Buchheld, N., Grossman, P., & Walach, H. (2001). Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (vipassana) and meditation-based psychotherapy: the development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Journal for Meditation and Meditation Research, 1, 11–34.
Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationship between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavior Medicine, 31, 23–33.
Chen, S., & Li, L. (2003). Re-testing reliability, validity and norm applicability of SCL-90. Chinese Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 29, 323–327.
Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (2001). Cross-cultural research methods. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.
Feldman, G. C., Hayes, A. M., Kumar, S. M., Greeson, J. G., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: the development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 177–190.
Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 35–43.
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Understanding and treating human suffering. New York: Guilford Press.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Delacorte.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.
Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Shapiro, S., et al. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 1445–1467.
Lin, C. L., & Lin, M. J. (2007). The validity and reliability of Chinese version of loneliness scale—the example of the elderly. The Archive of Guidance and Counseling, 29, 41–50.
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.
Liu, X. H., & Chu, Y. Q. (2010). Effects of mindfulness therapy on emotional distress in one patient with renal transplantation: a case report. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 24, 380–381.
Liu, X. H., Leung, F., Duan, G. Q., & Li, X. X. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: from Zen meditation to clinical psychotherapy. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16, 334–336.
Liu, X. H., & Wang, S. S. (2009). A review of post-traumatic stress disorder reception and mindfulness-based therapeutics. Journal of Capital Normal University (Social Sciences Edition), 190, 66–70.
Li, W., & Qian, M. Y. (1995). Revision of the state–trait anxiety inventory with sample of Chinese college students. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 31, 108–114.
Ludwig, D. S., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2008). Mindfulness in medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300, 1350–1352.
Lykins, E. L. B., & Baer, R. A. (2009). Psychological functioning in a sample of long-term practitioners of mindfulness meditation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 23, 226–248.
Medsker, G. J., Williams, L. J., & Holahan, P. J. (1994). A review of current practices for evaluating causal models in organizational behavior and human resources management research. Journal of Management, 20, 429–464.
Melbourne Mindfulness Academic Interest Group, Allen, N., Blashki, G., Chambers, R., Ciechomski, L., Gullone, E., et al. (2006). Mindfulness-based psychotherapies: a review of conceptual foundations, empirical evidence and practical considerations. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 285–294.
Schwartz, J. M. (1996). Brain lock. New York: HarperCollins.
Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. C., Lushene, R. E., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the state–trait anxiety inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Tang, Y. Y., Lu, Q. L., Geng, X. J., Stein, E. A., Yang, Y. H., & Posner, M. I. (2010). Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 15649–15652.
Tang, Y. Y., Ma, Y., Fan, Y., Feng, H., Wang, J., Feng, S., et al. (2009). Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 8865–8870.
Tang, Y. Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., et al. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 17152–17156.
Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmuller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Stefan, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1543–1555.
Wang, Z. (1984). Symptom checklist 90. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 2, 68–70.
Wortzel, R. (1979). Multivariate analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., & Qian, M. Y. (1990). Beck depression inventory: reliability and validity. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 4, 164–168.
This research was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Project No.30900411) and the Grant from the Beijing Special Fund of Outstanding Personnel Training (2009D005016000012). This research was also partly supported by the Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition, Capital Normal University. The authors would like to acknowledge Han Kai-Lei, Li Li-Juan, Li Mi, Wang Si-Si, and Zhang Hong-Bao who are the graduates in Psychology Department in Capital Normal University for their assistance with data collection.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
About this article
Cite this article
Deng, YQ., Liu, XH., Rodriguez, M.A. et al. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version. Mindfulness 2, 123–128 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0050-9
- Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)