Advertisement

Ghaleh-khargushi rhyodacite and Gorid andesite from Iran: characterization, uses, and durability

  • Ahmad Zalooli
  • David Martín Freire-Lista
  • Mashalah KhamehchiyanEmail author
  • Mohammad Reza Nikudel
  • Rafael Fort
  • Shahram Ghasemi
Original Article

Abstract

Durability of building stones is an important issue in sustainable development. Crystallization of soluble salts is recognized as one of the most destructive weathering agents of building stones. For this reason, durability of Ghaleh-khargushi rhyodacite and Gorid andesite from Iran was investigated against sodium sulfate crystallization aging test. Petrographic and physico-mechanical properties and pore size distribution of these stones were examined before and after the aging test. The characteristics of the microcracks were quantified with fluorescence-impregnated thin sections. Durability and physico-mechanical characteristics of Ghaleh-khargushi rhyodacite are mainly influenced by preferentially oriented preexisting microcracks. Stress induced by salt crystallization led to the widening of preexisting microcracks in Ghaleh-khargushi rhyodacite, as confirmed by the pore size distributions before and after the aging test. The preexisting microcracks of Gorid andesite were attributed to the mechanical stress induced by contraction of lava during cooling. The number of transcrystalline microcracks was significantly increased after the aging test. The degree of plagioclase microcracking was proportional to its size. Durability of the studied stones depends on initial physico-mechanical properties, pore size distribution, and orientation of microcracks. Initial effective porosity is found to be a good indicator of the stones’ durability. Salt crystallization resulted in an increase in the effective porosity with a parallel decrease in the wave velocities. Surface microroughness parameters increased with the development of salt crystallization-induced microcracking. Gorid andesite showed higher quality and durability than Ghaleh-khargushi rhyodacite.

Keywords

Ghaleh-khargushi rhyodacite Gorid andesite Building stone Salt crystallization Physico-mechanical properties Microcracks 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by Tarbiat Modares University of Tehran and the Community of Madrid under the GEOMATERIALS-2CM Program (S2013/MIT-2914). Ministry of Science and Technology of Iran financed the stay of the first author in Madrid for six months to conduct research. Sample preparation, strength and physical properties, wave velocity, and salt crystallization tests were run at Department of Engineering Geology of Tarbiat Modares University. The assistance provided by XRD laboratory technician of Tarbiat Modares University of Mohammad Yusefi is gratefully acknowledged. The authors wish to thank Mr. Yasin Kazemi for preparing simplified geological maps. Leeb hardness, mercury porosimetry, surface microroughness, colorimetry tests, and preparation of fluorescence-impregnated thin sections were performed at the IGEO (CSIC, UCM) Petrophysic Laboratory. The authors wish to thank Pedro Vicente Lozano Carrasco, a member of laboratory staff of Petrology and Geochemistry Department of Complutense University of Madrid for helping in preparing fluorescence-impregnated thin sections. Authors are grateful to the Cristian Zapatero Martín, a member of Petrophysic Laboratory of IGEO (CSIC, UCM) for performing mercury porosimetry tests and helping in mosaics preparation.

References

  1. Anon OH (1979) Classification of rocks and soils for engineering geological mapping. Part 1: Rock and soil materials. Bull Int Assoc Eng Geol 19:355–367Google Scholar
  2. Aoki H, Matsukura Y (2008) Estimating the unconfined compressive strength of intact rocks from Equotip hardness. Bull Eng Geol Environ 67:23–29.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-007-0116-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashurst J, Dimes FG (1998) Conservation of building and decorative stone. Butterworth-Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Benavente D, García del Cura MA, Fort R, Ordóñez S (2004) Durability estimation of porous building stones from pore structure and strength. Eng Geol 74:113–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benavente D, Martínez-Martínez J, Cueto N, García del Cura MA (2007) Salt weathering in dual-porosity building dolostones. Eng Geol 94:215–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buerger MJ (1945) The genesis of twin crystals. Am Miner 30:469–482Google Scholar
  7. Buj O, Gisbert J (2010) Influence of pore morphology on the durability of sedimentary building stones from Aragon (Spain) subjected to standard salt decay tests. Environ Earth Sci 61:1327–1336.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0451-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cardell C, Rivas T, Mosquera MJ, Birginie JM, Moropoulou A, Prieto B, Silva B, Van Grieken R (2003) Patterns of damage in igneous and sedimentary rocks under conditions simulating sea-salt weathering. Earth Surf Process Landf 28:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carta L, Calcaterra D, Cappelletti P, Langella A, De’Gennaro M (2005) The stone materials in the historical architecture of the ancient center of Sassari: distribution and state of conservation. J Cult Herit 6:277–286.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2004.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chatterjee N (2010) The basalt stone quarries of eastern India. & #x200E;Int J. Environ Res 67:439–457.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2010.491253 Google Scholar
  11. Columbu S (2017) Provenance and alteration of pyroclastic rocks from the Romanesque Churches of Logudoro (north Sardinia, Italy) using a petrographic and geochemical statistical approach. Appl Phys A 123:165.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-017-0790-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coombes MA, Feal-Pérez A, Naylor LA, Wilhelm K (2013) A non-destructive tool for detecting changes in the hardness of engineering materials: application of the Equotip durometer in the coastal zone. Eng Geol 167:14–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deere DU, Miller RP (1966) Engineering classification and index properties for intact rocks. Tech. report no. AFNL-TR-65–116, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, New MexicoGoogle Scholar
  14. Degraff JM, Aydin A (1987) Surface-morphology of columnar joints and its significance to mechanics and direction of joint growth. Geol Soc Am Bull 99:605–617.  https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1987)99%3C605%3ASMOCJA%3E2.0.CO%3B2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doehne E (2002) Salt weathering: a selective review. Natural stone, weathering phenomena, conservation strategies and case studies. Geol Soc Spec Publ 205:51–64.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-1448-3-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Egydio-Silva M, Mainprice D (1999) Determination of stress directions from Pl fabrics in high grade deformed rocks (Além Paraíba shear zone, Ribeira fold belt, southeastern Brazil). J Struct Geol 21:1751–1771.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(99)00121-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farrell NJC, Healy D, Taylor CW (2014) Anisotropy of permeability in faulted porous sandstones. J Struct Geol 63:50–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2014.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fener M, Ince I (2015) Effects of the freeze–thaw (F–T) cycle on the andesitic rocks (Sille-Konya/Turkey) used in construction building. J Afr Earth Sci 109:96–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2015.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fort R, Alvarez de Buergo M, Perez-Monserrat EM, Varas-Muriel MJ (2010) Characterisation of monzogranitic batholiths as a supply source for heritage construction in the northwest of Madrid. Eng Geol 115:149–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fort R, Alvarez de Buergo M, Perez-Monserrat EM, Gomez-Heras M, Varas-Muriel MJ, Freire-Lista DM (2013) Evolution in the use of natural building stone in Madrid, Spain. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 46:421–429.  https://doi.org/10.1144/qjegh2012-041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fort R, Varas-Muriel MJ, Alvarez de Buergo M, Perez-Monserrat EM (2015) Colmenar limestone, Madrid, Spain: considerations for its nomination as a Global Heritage Stone Resource due to its long term durability. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 407:121–135.  https://doi.org/10.1144/SP407.8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freire-Lista DM, Fort R, Varas-Muriel MJ (2015a) Alpedrete granite (Spain). A nomination for the “Global Heritage Stone Resource” designation. Episodes 38:106–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.886 Google Scholar
  23. Freire-Lista DM, Fort R, Varas-Muriel MJ (2015b) Freeze–thaw fracturing in building granites. Cold Reg Sci Technol 113:40–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2015.01.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freire-Lista DM, Gomez-Villalba LS, Fort R (2015c) Microcracking of granite feldspar during thermal artificial processes. Period Miner 84:519–537Google Scholar
  25. Freire-Lista DM, Fort R, Varas-Muriel MJ (2016) Thermal stress-induced microcracking in building granite. Eng Geol 206:83–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Germinario L, Siegesmund S, Maritan L, Mazzoli C (2017) Petrophysical and mechanical properties of Euganean trachyte and implications for dimension stone decay and durability performance. Environ Earth Sci 76:739.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-7034-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ghorbani M (2013) The economic geology of Iran: mineral deposits and natural resources. Springer, Dordrecht.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5625-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gies R (1987) An improved method for viewing micropore systems in rocks with the polarizing microscope. SPE Form Eval 2:209–214.  https://doi.org/10.2118/13136-PA CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gomes RL, Rodrigues JE (2007) Quality ranking of twelve columnar basalt occurrences in the northern portion of the Paraná Basin—Brazil. Eng Geol 91:265–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gomez-Heras M, Fort R (2007) Patterns of halite (NaCl) crystallisation in building stone conditioned by laboratory heating regimes. Environ Geol 52:259–267.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-006-0538-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Graue B, Siegesmund S, Middendorf B (2011) Quality assessment of replacement stones for the Cologne Cathedral: mineralogical and petrophysical requirement. Environ Earth Sci 63:1799–1822.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-011-1077-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gray NH (1986) Symmetry in a natural fracture pattern: the origin of columnar joint networks. Comput Math Appl 12:531–545.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0898-1221(86)90409-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guy B (2010) Comments on “Basalt columns: large scale constitutional supercooling?” by John Gilman (JVGR, 2009) and presentation of some new data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 194:69–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.09.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ISRM (2007) Rock characterization, testing and monitoring, ISRM suggested methods. In: Brown ET (ed) Pergamon Press, Oxford, p 211Google Scholar
  35. Jamshidi A, Nikudel MR, Khamechiyan M (2013) Estimating the durability of building stones against Salt crystallization: considering the physical properties and strength characteristics. Geopesia 3:35–48.  https://doi.org/10.22059/jgeope.2013.36013 Google Scholar
  36. Jamshidi A, Nikudel MR, Khamehchiyan M, Zalooli A (2015) Statistical models for predicting the mechanical properties of travertine building stones after freeze-thaw cycles. In: Lollino G et al (eds) Engineering geology for society and territory, vol 8. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 477–481.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09408-3_83 Google Scholar
  37. Jamshidi A, Nikudel MR, Khamehchiyan M, Zalooli A, Yeganehfar H (2017) Estimating the mechanical properties of travertine building stones due to salt crystallization using multivariate regression analysis. J Sci I R Iran 28:231–241Google Scholar
  38. Kantha LH (1981) ‘Basalt fingers’ – origin of columnar joints. Geol Mag 118:251–264.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800035731 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Karimpour M (2011) Review of age, Rb-Sr geochemistry and petrogenesis of Jurassic to Quaternary igneous rocks in Lut Block, Eastern Iran. Geopersia 1:19–54.  https://doi.org/10.22059/jgeope.2011.22162 Google Scholar
  40. Langella A, Calcaterra D, Cappelletti P, Colella A, D’Albora MP, Morra V, De Gennaro M (2009) Lava stones from Neapolitan volcanic districts in the architecture of Campania region, Italy. Environ Earth Sci 59:145–160.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-009-0012-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Laurent P, Kern H, Lacombe O (2000) Determination of deviatoric stress tensors based on inversion of calcite twin data from experimentally deformed monophase samples. Part II. Axial and triaxial stress experiments. Tectonophysics 327:131–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(00)00165-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. López-Arce P, Varas-Muriel MJ, Fernández-Revuelta B, Alvarez de Buergo M, Fort R, Pérez-Soba C (2010) Artificial weathering of Spanish granites subjected to salt crystallization tests: surface roughness quantification. CATENA 83:170–185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2010.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Manjunatha BR, Redd VD, Krishnakumar KN, Balakrishna K, Manjunatha HV, Gurumurthy GP (2014) Selection criteria for decorative dimension stones. IJEE 7:408–414Google Scholar
  44. Mattsson HB, Caricchi L, Almqvist BS, Caddick MJ, Bosshard SA, Hetényi G, Hirt AM (2011) Melt migration in basalt columns driven by crystallization-induced pressure gradients. Nature Commun 2:299.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1298 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Momeni A, Khanlari GR, Heidari M, Bagheri R, Bazvand E (2015) Assessment of physical weathering effects on granitic ancient monuments, Hamedan. Iran. Environ Earth Sci 74:5181–5190.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4536-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nabavi MH, Amidi SM (1980) Geological map of Sarv-e-Bala area, 1:100.000. Geological survey of IranGoogle Scholar
  47. Nazari H, Salamati R (1999) Geological map of Sarbisheh, 1:100.000. Geological survey of IranGoogle Scholar
  48. Ordóñez S, Fort R, García del Cura MA (1997) Pore size distribution and the durability of a porous limestone. Quart J Eng Geol 30:221–230.  https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1997.030.P3.04 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pang KN, Chung SL, Zarrinkoub MH, Mohammadi SS, Yang HM, Chu CH, Lee HY, Lo CH (2012) Age, geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of Late Cenozoic intraplate alkali basalts in the Lut-Sistan region, eastern Iran. Chem Geol 306:40–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.02.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. RILEM (1980) Recommended tests to measure the deterioration of stone and to assess the effectiveness of treatment methods. Mater Struct 13:175–253Google Scholar
  51. Robertson AR (1977) The CIE 1976 color-difference formulae. Color Res Appl 2:7–11.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1520-6378.1977.tb00104.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ruiz-Agudo E, Mees F, Jacobs P, Rodriguez-Navarro C (2007) The role of saline solution properties on porous limestone salt weathering by magnesium and sodium sulfates. Environ Geol 52:269–281.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-006-0476-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Scherer GW (1999) Crystallization in pores. Cem Concr Res 29:1347–1358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00002-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Siegesmund S, Snethlage R (2014) Stone in architecture. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 978-3-642-45154-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Silva ZSG, Simão JAR (2009) The role of salt fog on alteration of dimension stone. Constr Build Mater 23:3321–3327.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.06.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sousa LMO (2013) The influence of the characteristics of quartz and mineral deterioration on the strength of granitic dimensional stones. Environ Earth Sci 69:1333–1346.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2036-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sousa LMO (2014) Petrophysical properties and durability of granites employed as building stone: a comprehensive evaluation. Bull Eng Geol Environ 73:569–588.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-013-0553-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sousa LMO, Suarez del Rio LM, Calleja L, Ruiz de Argondona VG, Rey AR (2005) Influence of microcracks and porosity on the physico-mechanical properties and weathering of ornamental granites. Eng Geol 77:153–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Steiger M (2005a) Crystal growth in porous materials—I: the crystallization pressure of large crystals. J Cryst Growth 282:455–469.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Steiger M (2005b) Crystal growth in porous materials—II: influence of crystal size on the crystallization pressure. J Cryst Growth 282:470–481.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Steiger M, Charola AE (2011) Weathering and deterioration. In: Siegesmund S, Snethlage R (eds) Stone in architecture. Springer, Berlin, pp 227–316.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14475-2_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tandon RS, Gupta V (2013) The control of mineral constituents and textural characteristics on the petrophysical and mechanical (PM) properties of different rocks of the Himalaya. Eng Geol 153:125–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2012.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Topal T, Sözmen B (2003) Deterioration mechanisms of tuffs in Midas monument. Eng Geol 68:201–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(02)00228-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Torabi G (2009) Subduction-related Eocene shoshonites from the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhrat magmatic arc (Qaleh-Khargooshi area, West of the Yazd province, Iran). Turk J Earth Sci 18:583–613.  https://doi.org/10.3906/yer-0711-2 Google Scholar
  65. Ulusoy M (2007) Different igneous masonry blocks and salt crystal weathering rates in the architecture of historical city of Konya. Build Environ 42:3014–3024.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ündül Ö (2016) Assessment of mineralogical and petrographic factors affecting petro-physical properties, strength and cracking processes of volcanic rocks. Eng Geol 2010:10–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ündül Ö, Tuğrul A (2016) On the variations of geo-engineering properties of dunites and diorites related to weathering. Environ Earth Sci 75:1326.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6152-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ündül O, Amann F, Aysal N, Plötze ML (2015) Micro-textural effects on crack initiation and crack propagation of andesitic rocks. Eng Geol 193:267–275.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.04.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. UNE-EN 15886 (2011) Conservation of Cultural Property—Test Methods—Colour Measurement of Surfaces. AENOR, MadridGoogle Scholar
  70. Vasconcelos G, Lourenço PB, Alves CAS, Pamplona J (2008) Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites. Ultrasonics 48:453–466.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2008.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vázquez P, Alonso FJ (2015) Colour and roughness measurements as NDT to evaluate ornamental granite decay. Procedia Earth Planet Sci 15:213–218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2015.08.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wedekind W, López-Doncel R, Dohrmann R, Kocher M, Siegesmund S (2013) Weathering of volcanic tuff rocks caused by moisture expansion. Environ Earth Sci 69:1203–1224.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2158-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Whitney DL, Evans BW (2010) Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals. Am Mineral 95:185–187.  https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2010.3371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yavuz AB, Kaputoglu SA, Çolak M, Tanyu BF (2017) Durability assessments of rare green andesites widely used as building stones in Buca (Izmir). Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 76:211.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6531-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yilmaz NG, Karaca Z, Goktan RM, Akal C (2009) Relative brittleness characterization of some selected granitic building stones: influence of mineral grain size. Constr Build Maters 23:370–375.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yu S, Oguchi CT (2010) Role of pore size distribution in salt uptake, damage, and predicting salt susceptibility of eight types of Japanese building stones. Eng Geol 115:226–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zalooli A, Khamehchiyan M, Nikudel MR, Jamshidi A (2017a) Deterioration of travertine samples due to magnesium sulfate crystallization pressure: examples from Iran. Geotech Geol Eng 35:463–473.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-016-0120-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zalooli A, Khamehchiyan M, Nikudel MR (2017b) The quantification of total and effective porosities in travertines using PIA and saturation-buoyancy methods and the implication for strength and durability. Bull Eng Geol Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-017-1072-x Google Scholar
  79. Zeng L, Zhao J, Zhu S, Xiong W, He Y, Chen J (2008) Impact of rock anisotropy on fracture development. Prog Nat Sci Mater 18:1403–1408.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2008.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zoghlami K, Martín-Martín JD, Gómez-Gras D, Navarro A, Parcerisa D, Rosell JR (2017) The building stone of the Roman city of Dougga (Tunisia): provenance, petrophysical characterisation and durability. C R Geosci 349:402–411.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crte.2017.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Zalooli
    • 1
  • David Martín Freire-Lista
    • 2
  • Mashalah Khamehchiyan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Reza Nikudel
    • 1
  • Rafael Fort
    • 2
  • Shahram Ghasemi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Instituto de Geociencias IGEO (CSIC, UCM) Spanish Research Council CSIC – Complutense University of Madrid UCMMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations