Food Security

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 351–364 | Cite as

Input constraints to food production: the impact of soil degradation

  • R. J. Rickson
  • L. K. Deeks
  • A. Graves
  • J. A. H. Harris
  • M. G. Kibblewhite
  • R. Sakrabani
Original Paper

Abstract

Global demand for food is increasing in terms of the quantity, quality and reliability of supplies. Currently, over 90 % of our food is grown on (or in) a virtually irreplaceable, non-renewable natural resource – the soil. This paper examines the latest research on selected soil degradation processes (soil erosion by water, compaction, loss of organic matter, loss of soil biodiversity and soil contamination) and specifically how they impact on food production. Every year, an estimated 12 million hectares of agricultural land are lost to soil degradation, adding to the billions of hectares that are already degraded. It is estimated that soil degradation leads to a potential loss of 20 million tonnes of grain per annum, but this is likely to be an underestimate, because the evidence base is limited in identifying direct impacts of soil degradation on food production. Some soil management practices have been used to mask the effects of soil degradation on food production (e.g., additions of chemical fertilisers), but comprehensive soil conservation practices are required to respond to the multiple problems of soil degradation if the world is to be able to feed more than 9 billion people by 2050.

Keywords

Soil degradation processes Food production 

References

  1. Abawi, G. S., & Widmer, T. L. (2000). Impact of soil health management practices on soilborne pathogens, nematodes and root diseases of vegetable crops. Applied Soil Ecology, 15, 37–47.Google Scholar
  2. Agraawal, R. P. (1991). Water and nutrient management in sandy soils by compaction. Soil and Tillage Research, 19(2–3), 121–130.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad, N., Hassan, F. U., & Belford, R. K. (2009). Effect of soil compaction in the subhumid cropping environment in Pakistan on uptake of NPK and grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum). I. Compaction. Field Crops Research, 110, 54–60.Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad, M., Rajapaksha, A., Lim, J., Zhang, M., Bolan, N., Mohan, D., et al. (2014). Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review. Chemosphere, 99, 19–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Akker, J. J. H., & Canarache, A. (2001). Two European concerted actions on subsoil compaction. Landnutzug und Landentwicklung, 42, 15–22.Google Scholar
  6. Altieri, M. A. (1999). The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 74, 19–31.Google Scholar
  7. Antille, D., Sakrabani, R. & Godwin, R.J. (2013). Field-scale evaluation of biosolids-derived organomineral fertilisers applied to ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) in England. Applied and Environmental Soil Science. Vol 2013. Article ID 960629. 9 pages.Google Scholar
  8. Arvidsson, J., & Håkansson, I. (2014). Response of different crops to soil compaction – Short-term effects in Swedish field experiments. Soil & Tillage Research, 138, 56–63.Google Scholar
  9. Aveyard, J.M. (1983). Soil erosion and its effect on productivity and selected soil properties on a texture contrast soil in a Mediterranean environment, Malama Aina Conference, Honolulu, January 16–22, 1983.Google Scholar
  10. Aveyard, J. M. (1988). Land degradation: changing attitudes-why? Journal Soil Conservation Service NSW., 44, 46–51.Google Scholar
  11. Bai, Z. G., Dent, D. L., Olsson, L., & Schaepman, M. E. (2008). Global assessment of land degradation and improvement identification by remote sensing. Wageningen: International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC).Google Scholar
  12. Bakker, D. M., & Davis, R. J. (1995). Soil deformation observation in a vertisol under field traffic. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 33, 817–832.Google Scholar
  13. Bakker, M. M., Govers, G., & Rounsevell, M. D. A. (2004). The crop productivity-erosion relationship: an analysis based on experimental work. Catena, 57, 55–76.Google Scholar
  14. Ball, B. C., Campbell, D. J., & Hunter, E. A. (2000). Soil compactibility in relation to physicl and organic properties at 156 sites in UK. Soil Tillage Research, 57, 83–91.Google Scholar
  15. Barr, D. A. (1957). The effect of sheet erosion on wheat yield. Journal Soil Conservation Service NSW, 13, 27–32.Google Scholar
  16. Barton, A. P., Fullen, M. A., Mitchell, D. J., Hocking, T. J., Liu, L. G., Bo, Z. W., et al. (2004). Effects of soil conservation measures on erosion rates and crop productivity on subtropical Ultisols in Yunnan Province, China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 104(2), 343–357.Google Scholar
  17. Batey, T. (2009). Soil compaction and soil management – a review. Soil Use and Management, 25, 335–345.Google Scholar
  18. Battiston, L.A., McBride, R.A., Miller, M.H., & Brklacich, M.J. (1985). Soil erosion productivity research in southern Ontario. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. Special Publ. 8–85, St. Joseph, MI, 28–38.Google Scholar
  19. Baxter, C., Rowan, J. S., McKenzie, B. M., & Neilson, R. (2013). Understanding soil erosion impacts in temperate agroecosystems: bridging the gap between geomorphology and soil ecology using nematodes as a model organism. Biogeosciences, 10(11), 7133–7145.Google Scholar
  20. Beddington. J., Asaduzzaman, M., Clark, M., Fernández, A., Guillou, M., Jahn, M., et al. (2012). Achieving food security in the face of climate change: Final report from the Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org/commission.
  21. Bellamy, P. H., Loveland, P. J., Bradley, R. I., Lark, R. M., & Kirk, G. J. D. (2005). Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales 1978–2003. Nature, 437, 245–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bengough, A. G., McKenzie, B. M., Hallett, P. D., & Valentine, T. A. (2011). Root elongation, water stress, and mechanical impedance: a review of limiting stresses and beneficial root tip traits. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bilotta, G. S., Brazier, R. E., & Haygarth, P. M. (2007). The impacts of grazing animals on the quality of soils, vegetation, and surface waters in intensively managed grasslands. Advances in Agronomy, 94, 237–280.Google Scholar
  24. Bofu, Z., Jing, D., Junsong, J., Feng,  L. & Yan, Y. (2008). Assessment of ecosystem services of Lugu Lake watershed. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 15(1).Google Scholar
  25. Botta, G. G., Jorajuria, C. D., & Draghi, T. L. (1999). Soil compaction during secondary tillage traffic. Agro-Ciencia, 15, 139–144.Google Scholar
  26. Bringezu, S., O’Brien, M., Pengue, W., Swilling, M. & Kauppi, L. (2010). Assessing global land use and soil management for sustainable resource policies. Scoping paper for the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management, UNEP. Chaudary & Das, 1990.Google Scholar
  27. Chaudary, H. P., & Das, S. K. (1990). Nutrient status in relation to intensity of erosion in ravines of Yamuna. Indian Social Soil Sciences, 38, 126–129.Google Scholar
  28. Cluzeau, D., Binet, F., Vertes, F., Simon, J., Riviere, J., & Trehen, P. (1992). Effects of intensive cattle trampling on soil–plant–earthworms system in two grassland types. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24, 1661–1665.Google Scholar
  29. Cole, L., Buckland, S. M., & Bardgett, R. D. (2005). Relating microarthropod community structure and diversity to soil fertility manipulations in temperate grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, 1707–1717.Google Scholar
  30. Cortet, J., Gillon, D., Joffre, R., Ourcival, J.-M., & Poinsot-Balaguer, N. (2002a). Effects of pesticides on organic matter recycling and microarthropods in a maize field: use and discussion of the litterbag methodology Eur. Journal of Soil Biology, 38, 261–265.Google Scholar
  31. Cortet, J., Ronce, D., Poinsot-Balaguer, N., Beaufreton, C., Chabert, A., Viaux, P., et al. (2002b). Impacts of different agricultural practices on the biodiversity of microarthropod communities in arable crop systems. European Journal of Soil Biology, 38, 239–244.Google Scholar
  32. Courtney, F. M., & Trudgill, S. T. (1976). The soil: An introduction to soil study in Britain (p. 120). London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  33. Daily, G. C. (1997). Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
  34. Dass, A., Sudhishri, S., Lenka, N. K., & Patnaik, U. S. (2011). Runoff capture through vegetative barriers and planting methodologies to reduce erosion, and improve soil moisture, fertility and crop productivity in southern Orissa, India. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 89(1), 45–57.Google Scholar
  35. Deeks, L. K., Chaney, K., Murray, C., Sakrabani, R., Gedara, S., Le, M. S., et al. (2013). A new sludge-derived organo-mineral fertilizer gives similar crop yields as conventional fertilizers. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33, 539–549.Google Scholar
  36. Defossez, P., & Richard, G. (2002). Models of soil compaction due to traffic and their evaluation. Soil Tillage Research, 67, 41–64.Google Scholar
  37. Defra. (2009). Safeguarding our Soils: A Strategy for England. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London.Google Scholar
  38. Diaz, F. J., Tejedor, M., Jimenez, C., & Dahlgren, R. A. (2011). Soil fertility dynamics in runoff-capture agriculture, Canary Islands, Spain. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 144(1), 253–261.Google Scholar
  39. Doran, J. W., & Parkin, T. B. (1994). Defining and assessing soil quality. In J. W. Doran, D. C. Coleman, D. F. Bezdicek, & B. A. Stewart (Eds.), Proceedings of a symposium on defining soil quality for a sustainable environment (Minneapolis, 1992) (pp. 3–21). Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America/American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
  40. Dregne, H. E. (1992). Erosion and soil productivity in Asia. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 47, 8–13.Google Scholar
  41. Dungait, J. A. J., Ghee, C., Rowan, J. S., McKenzie, B. M., Hawes, C., Dixon, E. R., et al. (2013). Microbial responses to the erosional redistribution of soil organic carbon in arable fields. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 60, 195–201.Google Scholar
  42. Edwards, C. A., Grove, T. L., Harwood, R. R., & Pierce Colfer, C. J. (1993). The role of agroecology and integrated farming systems in agricultural sustainability. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 46, 99–121.Google Scholar
  43. Eilers, K. G., Debenport, S., Anderson, S., & Fierer, N. (2012). Digging deeper to find unique microbial communities: the strong effect of depth on the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities in soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 50, 58–65.Google Scholar
  44. European Commission (2006). Thematic strategy for the protection of soil. COM (2006) 231 final. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.Google Scholar
  45. Faeth, P., & Crosson, P. (1994). Building the case for sustainable agriculture. Environment, 36, 16–20.Google Scholar
  46. FAO (1996). Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. World Food Summit 13–17 November 1996. Rome.Google Scholar
  47. Fierer, N., Schimel, J. P., & Holden, P. A. (2003). Variations in microbial community composition through two soil depth profiles. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35(1), 167–176.Google Scholar
  48. Foresight (2011). The Future of Food and Farming. Final Project Report. The Government Office for Science, London.Google Scholar
  49. Frampton, G. K., Van Den Brink, P. J., & Wratten, S. D. (2001). Diel activity patterns in an arable collembolan community. Applied Soil Ecology, 17, 63–80.Google Scholar
  50. Frye, W. W., Ebelhar, S. A., Murdock, L. W., & Bevins, R. L. (1982). Soil erosion effects on properties and productivity of two Kentucky soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 46, 1051.Google Scholar
  51. Godfray, H. C. J., Beddington, J. R., Crute, I. R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J. F., et al. (2010). Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327, 812–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gorlach, B., Landgrebe-Trinkunaite, R., Interweis, E., Bouzit, M, Darmendrail, D. & Rinaudo, J.D. (2004). Assessing the Economic Impacts of Soil Degradation. Final Report to European Commission. DG Environment. ENV.B.1/ETU/2003/0024. Ecologic, Berlin.Google Scholar
  53. Graves, A. R., & Morris, J. (2013). Restoration of Fenland Peatland under Climate Change. Report to the Adaptation Sub-Committee of the Committee on Climate Change. Cranfield University, Bedford, 73 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Graves, A., Morris, J., Deeks, L.K., Rickson, R.J., Kibblewhite, M.G., Harris, J.A, & Farewell, T.S. (2010). The Total Costs of Soils Degradation in England and Wales. Final Report submitted to Defra 156 pp.Google Scholar
  55. Gregory, A. S., Watts, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Kuan, H. L., Griffiths, B. S., Hallett, P. D., et al. (2007). Physical resilience of soil to field compaction and the interactions with plant growth and microbial community structure. European Journal of Soil Science, 58(6), 1221–1232.Google Scholar
  56. Hamza, M. A., & Anderson, W. K. (2005). Soil compaction in cropping systems. A review of the nature, causes and possible solutions. Soil & Tillage Research, 82, 121–145.Google Scholar
  57. Heisler, C., & Kaiser, E. A. (1995). Influence of agricultural traffic and crop management on Collembola and microbial biomass in arable soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 19, 159–165.Google Scholar
  58. Hofman, G. & Cleemput, O. Van (2004). Soil and Plant Nitrogen. Paris, France.Google Scholar
  59. Huguenin, M. T., Leggett, C. G. & Paterson, R. W. (2006). Economic valuation of soil fauna. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42(1), 16–22.Google Scholar
  60. Jacob, P., Fesenko, S., Bogdevitch, I., Kashparov, V., Sanzharova, N., Grebenshikova, N., et al. (2009). Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: radiation exposure and remediation strategies. Science of the Total Environment, 408(1), 14–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jie, D. (2010) Chinese Soil Experts Warn Of Massive Threat to Food Security. SciDevNet, 5 August 2010. Available online: http://www.scidev.net/global/earth-science/news/chinese-soil- experts-warn-of-massive-threat-to-food-security.html.
  62. Karlen, D. L., Mausbach, M. J., Doran, J. W., Cline, R. G., Harris, R. F., & Schuman, G. E. (1997). Soil quality: a concept, definition, and framework for evaluation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61, 4–10.Google Scholar
  63. Kendall, H. W., & Pimentel, D. (1994). Constraints on the expansion of the global food supply. Ambio, 23, 198–205.Google Scholar
  64. Knight, S., Knightley, S., Bingham, I., Hoad, S., Lang, B., Philpott, H., et al. (2012). Desk study to evaluate contributory causes of the current ‘yield plateau’ in wheat and oilseed rape. Project Report No 502. Home Grown Cereals Authority.Google Scholar
  65. Krogh, P. H., Griffiths, B., Demšar, D., Bohanec, M., Debeljak, M., et al. (2007). Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems. Pedobiologia, 51, 219–227.Google Scholar
  66. Kuncoro, P. H., Koga, K., Satta, N., & Muto, Y. (2014). A study on the effect of compaction on transport properties of soil gas and water. II. Soil pore structure indices. Soil & Tillage Research, 143, 180–187.Google Scholar
  67. Lagomarsino, A., Grego, S., Marhan, S., Moscatelli, M. C., & Kandeler, E. (2009). Soil management modifies micro-scale abundance and function of soil microorganisms in a Mediterranean ecosystem. European Journal of Soil Science, 60, 2–12.Google Scholar
  68. Lal, R. (1995). Erosion-crop productivity relationships for soils of Africa. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59, 661–667.Google Scholar
  69. Lal, R. (1998). Soil erosion impact on agronomic productivity and environment quality. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 17(4), 319–464.Google Scholar
  70. Lal, R. (2001). Soil degradation by erosion. Land Degradation and Development, 12, 519–539. doi:10.1002/ldr.472.Google Scholar
  71. Lal, R. (2004). Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1623–7.Google Scholar
  72. Lal, R. (2009). Challenges and opportunities in soil organic matter research. European Journal of Soil Science, 60(2), 158–169.Google Scholar
  73. Lal, R. (2010). Managing soils for a warming earth in a food-insecure and energy-starved world. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 173(1), 4–15.Google Scholar
  74. Lam, H. M., Remais, J., Fung, M. C., Xu, L., & Sun, S. M. (2013). Food supply and food safety issues in China. The Lancet, 381(9882), 2044–2053.Google Scholar
  75. Lambert, M. G., Trustrum, N. A., & Costall, D. A. (1984). Effect of soil slip erosion on seasonally dry Wairarapa hill pastures. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 27, 57–64.Google Scholar
  76. Langdale, G. W., Box, J. E., Leonard, R. A., Barnett, A. P., & Fleming, W. G. (1979). Com yield reduction on eroded southern Piedmont soils. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 34, 226.Google Scholar
  77. Larney, F. J., Izaurralde, R. C., Janzen, H. H., Olson, B. M., Solberg, E. D., Lindwall, C. W., et al. (1995). Soil erosion crop productivity relationships for six Alberta soils. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 50, 87–91.Google Scholar
  78. Latif, N., Khan, M. A., & Ali, T. (2008). Effects of soil compaction caused by tillage and seed covering techniques on soil physical properties and performance of wheat crop. Soil and Environment, 27(2), 185–192.Google Scholar
  79. Lipiec, J., & Simota, C. (1994). Crop respnses in Cental and Eastern Europe. In B. D. Soane, & C. van Ouwerkerk (Eds.), Soil Compaction in Crop Production (pp. 365–389). Elsevier: Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  80. Lipiec, J., Håkansson, I., Tarkiewicz, S., & Kossowski, J. (1991). Soil physical properties and growth of spring barley related to the degree of compactness of two soils. Soil Tillage Research, 19, 307–317.Google Scholar
  81. Lipiec, J., Medvedev, V. V., Birkas, M., Dumitru, E., Lyndina, T. E., Rousseva, S., et al. (2003). Effect of soil compaction on root growth and crop yield in Central and Eastern Europe. International Agrophysics, 17, 61–69.Google Scholar
  82. Ljung, K., Maley, F., Cook, A., & Weinstein, P. (2009). Acid sulfate soils and human health-a millennium ecosystem assessment. Environment International, 35(8), 1234–1242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Loveland, P., & Webb, J. (2003). Is there a critical level of organic matter in the agricultural soils of temperate regions: a review. Soil & Tillage Research 70, 1–18.Google Scholar
  84. Lucas, R.E., Holtman, J.B. & Connor, L.J. (1977) Soil carbon dynamics and cropping practices. In Agriculture and Energy, W. Lockeretz, ed. Academic Press, New York, (1977), pp. 333–351.Google Scholar
  85. Lyles, L. (1975). Possible effects of wind erosion on soil productivity. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 30, 279.Google Scholar
  86. MA (2005). Ecosystem Services and Human Wellbeing. Millennium Ecosystems Assessment Synthesis report. 155 ppGoogle Scholar
  87. Maskey, R.B., Joshy, D., & Maharajan, P.L. (1992). Management of sloping lands for sustainable agriculture in Nepal. In: Sajjapongse, A., Ed. 1992. The management of sloping lands for sustainable agriculture in Asia, Phase 1, 1988–1991, IBSRAM, Bangkok, Thailand, 117–157.Google Scholar
  88. Matthews, G.P., Laudone, G.M., Gregory, A.S., Bird, N.R.A., Matthews, A.G.D. & Whalley, W.R. (2010). Measurement and simulation of the effect of compaction on the pore structure and saturated hydraulic conductivity of grassland and arable soil. Water Resources Research, 46.Google Scholar
  89. McAfee, M., Lindstöm, J., & Johansson, W. (1989). Effects of pre-sowing compaction on soil physical properties, soil atmosphere and growth of oats on a clay soil. Journal of Soil Science, 40, 707–717.Google Scholar
  90. McDaniel, T. A. & Hajek, B. F. (1985) Soil erosion on crop productivity and soil properties in Alabama. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Special Publ.8–85, St. Joseph, MI, 48–58.Google Scholar
  91. Meyer, L. D., & Wischmeier, W. H. (1969). Mathematical simulation of the process of soil erosion by water. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 12, 754–762.Google Scholar
  92. Miller, N., Quinton, J. N., Barberis, E., & Presta, M. (2009). Variability in the mobilization of sediment and phosphorus across 13 European soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38(2), 742–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mokma, D. L., & Sietz, M. A. (1992). Effects of soil erosion on corn yields on Marlette soils in south-central Michigan. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 47, 325–327.Google Scholar
  94. Morris J., Graves, A., Angus, A., Hess, T., Lawson, C., Camino, M., Truckell, I. & Holman, I. (2010). Restoration of lowland peatland in England and impacts on food production and security. Report to Natural England. Cranfield University: Bedford.Google Scholar
  95. Myers, N. (1993). Gaia: An atlas of planet management. Garden City: Anchor/DoubleDay.Google Scholar
  96. NEA. (2011). UK national ecosystem assessment: Synthesis of the Key findings. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC.Google Scholar
  97. Ngwira, A. R., Thierfelder, C., & Lambert, D. M. (2013). Conservation agriculture systems for Malawian smallholder farmers: long-term effects on crop productivity, profitability and soil quality. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 28(4), 350–363.Google Scholar
  98. Olson, K. R., & Nizeyimana, E. (1988). Effect of soil erosion on crop yields of seven Illinois soils. Journal of Production Agriculture, 1, 13–19.Google Scholar
  99. Owens, P.N., Rickson, R.J., Clarke, M.A., Dresser, M., Deeks, L.K., Jones, R.J.A., et al. (2006). Review of the existing knowledge base on magnitude, extent, causes and implications of soil loss due to wind, tillage and co-extraction with root vegetables in England and Wales, and recommendations for research priorities. NSRI Report to DEFRA, Project SP08007, Cranfield University, UK.Google Scholar
  100. Pimental, D., & Burgess, M. (2013). Soil erosion threatens food production. Agriculture, 3, 443–463. doi:10.3390/agriculture3030443.Google Scholar
  101. Pimentel, D. (2006). Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 8, 119–137.Google Scholar
  102. Pimentel, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, P., Sinclair, K., Kurz, D., McNair, M., et al. (1995). Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science, New Series, 267(5201), 1117–1123.Google Scholar
  103. Ponge, J.-F. (2013). The impact of agricultural practices on soil biota: a regional study. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 67, 271–284.Google Scholar
  104. Powlson, D.S., Gregory, P.J., Whalley, W.R., Quinton, J.N., Hopkins, D.W. Whitmore, A.P., et al. (2011). Soil management in relation to sustainable agriculture and ecosystem services. Food Policy Volume: 36 Supplement: 1 Pages: S72-S87 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.11.025
  105. Quinton, J. N., Catt, J. A., & Hess, T. M. (2001). The selective removal of phosphorus from soil: is event size important? Journal of Environmental Quality, 30(2), 538–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rebecchi, L., Sabatini, M. A., Cappi, C., Grazioso, P., Vicari, A., Dinelli, G., et al. (2000). Effects of a sulfonylurea herbicide on soil microarthropods. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 30, 312–317.Google Scholar
  107. Ritz, K., & Young, I. (2011). The architecture and biology of soils: Life in inner space. Croydon: CPI Group (UK) Ltd.Google Scholar
  108. Ritz, K., McHugh, M. & Harris, J. (2004). Biological diversity and function in soils: contemporary perspectives and implications in relation to the formulation of effective indicators. In Agricultural Soil Erosion and Soil Biodiversity: Developing Indicators for Policy Analyses, Paris, OECD.Google Scholar
  109. Romkens, M., Roth, C., & Nelson, D. (1977). Erodibility of selected clay subsoils in relation to physical and chemical properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 41(5), 954–960.Google Scholar
  110. Rosas-Castor, J., Guzman-Mar, J., Hernandez-Ramirez, A., Garza-Gonzalez, M., & Hinojosa-Reyes, L. (2014). Arsenic accumulation in maize crop (Zea mays): a review. Science of the Total Environment, 488–489(1), 176–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schertz, D. L., Moldenhauer, W. C., Livingston, S. J., Weesies, F. A., & Hintz, E. A. (1989). Effect of past soil erosion on crop productivity in Indiana. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 44, 604.Google Scholar
  112. Schumacher, T. E., Lindstrom, M. J., Mokma, D. L., & Nelson, W. W. (1994). Corn yield: erosion relationships of representative loess and till soils in the north central United States. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 49, 77–82.Google Scholar
  113. Singh, B. R., Gupta, S. K., Azaizeh, H., Shilev, S., Sudre, D., Song, W. Y., et al. (2011). Safety of food crops on land contaminated with trace elements. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91(8), 1349–1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Soane, B. D. (1990). The role of organic matter in soil compactibility: a review of some practical aspects. Soil Tillage Research, 16, 179–201.Google Scholar
  115. Stockdale, E. A., Fortune, S., & Cuttle, S. P. (2002). Soil fertility in organic farming systems – fundamentally different? Soil Use and Management, 18(3), 301–308.Google Scholar
  116. Thompson, A. L., Gantzer, C. J., & Anderson, S. H. (1991). Topsoil depth, fertility, water management, and weather influences on yield. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55, 1085–1091.Google Scholar
  117. Tong, J., Guo, H., & Wei, C. (2014). Arsenic contamination of the soil-wheat system irrigated with high arsenic groundwater in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, China. Science of the Total Environment, 496, 479–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Trewavas, A. (2004). A critical assessment of organic farming and food assertions with particular respect to the UK and potential environmental benefits of no-till agriculture. Crop Protection, 23, 757–781.Google Scholar
  119. Troeh, F. R., & Thompson, L. M. (1993). Soils and soil fertility (5th ed.). New York: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  120. Troeh, F. R., Hobbs, J. A., & Donahue, R. L. (1991). Soil and water conservation. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  121. Troeh, F. R., Hobbs, A. H., & Donahue, R. L. (2004). Soil and water conservation: For productivity and environmental protection. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  122. Ulyett, J. (2014). Impact of biochar manipulations on water and nitrogen dynamics of sandy loam soils. PhD thesis. Cranfield University.Google Scholar
  123. United Nations. (2012). The strategy of the united nations on mine action 2013–2018. United nations inter-agency coordination group on mine action. Geneva: United Nations.Google Scholar
  124. United Nations (2013). Guidelines for developing national strategies to use soil contamination monitoring as an environmental policy tool. Economic Commission for Europe. Committee on Environmental Policy. Working Group on Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Fourteenth Session. Geneva, 7 and 8 November 2013, UNECE, United Nations, Geneva.Google Scholar
  125. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (2011). Desertification: a visual synthesis. Bonn: UNCCD Secretariat. www.unccd.int/knowledge/docs/Desertification-EN.pdf
  126. Uraguchi, S., & Fujiwara, T. (2013). Rice breaks ground for cadmium-free cereals. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 16(3), 328–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Van der Putten, W. H., de Ruiter, P. C., Bezemer, T. M., Harvey, J. A., Wassen, M., & Wolters, V. (2004). Trophic interactions in a changing world. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 487–494.Google Scholar
  128. Van der Wal, A., Geerts, R. H. E. M., Korevaar, H., Schouten, A. J., & Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M. (2009). Dissimilar response of plant and soil biota communities to long–term nutrient addition in grasslands. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 45, 663–667.Google Scholar
  129. Verheijen, F. G. A., Jones, R. J. A., Rickson, R. J., & Smith, C. J. (2009). Tolerable versus actual soil erosion rates in Europe. Earth Science Reviews, 94(1–4), 23–38.Google Scholar
  130. Voorhees, W. B. (1987). Assessment of soil susceptibility to compaction using soil and climatic data bases. Soil and Tillage Research, 10, 29–38.Google Scholar
  131. Weesies, G. A., Livingston, S. J., Hosteter, W. D., & Schertz, D. L. (1994). Effect of soil erosion on crop yield in Indiana: results of a 10 year study. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 49, 597–600.Google Scholar
  132. Wen, F.H. & Easter, K.W. (1987). Soil erosion and the loss in productivity: An example of the Terril soil series in Minnesota. Station Bulleting 577–1987 (Item No. AD-SB-3200) Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Minnesota, 19 p.Google Scholar
  133. White, A.W., Jr., Bruce, R.R., Thomas, A.W., Langdale, G.W., & Perkins, H.F. (1985). Characterizing productivity of eroded soils in the Southern Piedmont. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. Special Publ. 8–85, St. Joseph, MI, 83–95.Google Scholar
  134. Wood, S., Sebastian, K., & Scherr, S. J. (2000). Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: Agroecosystems. Washington, DC: A joint study by the International Food Policy Research Institute and the World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  135. Wood, G.A., Kibblewhite, M.G., Hannan, J.A., Harris, J.A. & Leeds-Harrison, P.B. (2005). Soils in the Built Environment. Report to Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, National Soil Resources Institute, Cranfield University, Bedford.Google Scholar
  136. Wu, K-Y., Jiang, Z-C., Deng, X.H., & Ye, Y. (2008). Ecosystem service value of restored secondary forest in the Karstic-rocky hills—A case study of Nongla National Medicine Nature Reserve, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 4.Google Scholar
  137. Young, A. (1989). Agroforestry for soil conservation. Wallingford: CAB.Google Scholar
  138. Young, I.M. & Crawford, J.W. (eds.) (2004). Interactions and self-organisation in the soil-microbe complex. Science, 304: 1634–1637.Google Scholar
  139. Zhang, H. (1994). Organic matter incorporation affects mechanical properties of soil aggregates. Soil Tillage Research, 31, 263–275.Google Scholar
  140. Zhao, Q., Wang, Y., Cao, Y., Chen, A., Ren, M., Ge, Y., et al. (2014). Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, Eastern China. Science of the Total Environment, 470–471, 340–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Rickson
    • 1
  • L. K. Deeks
    • 1
  • A. Graves
    • 1
  • J. A. H. Harris
    • 1
  • M. G. Kibblewhite
    • 1
  • R. Sakrabani
    • 1
  1. 1.Cranfield Soil and AgriFood Institute, School of Energy, Environment and AgriFood (SEEA)Cranfield UniversityCranfieldUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations