Urbanization, nutrition and development in Southern African cities
- 653 Downloads
This paper draws on exisiting studies and survey data collected from 11 cities in nine Southern African countries by the African Food Security Urban Network in order to explore the relationship between urban poverty and food and nutrition insecurity in Southern Africa. The paper demonstrates that poverty underpins the high levels of food insecurity and malnutrition evident amongst the urban poor in Southern Africa; therefore, access to food, and not availability, is at the heart of the urbanisation-nutrition-development nexus. The paper reviews the state of knowledge about food insecurity and the double burden of nutritional diseases in the urban areas of Southern Africa and lays out an agenda for future research to fill significant knowledge gaps.
KeywordsNutrition Food security Urbanisation Poverty Cities Southern Africa
The publication of this paper was made possible by funding from the Canadian Government through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) under its University Partners in Cooperation and Development (UPCD) Tier One Program. We wish to thank our colleagues in AFSUN for their assistance. Appreciation is extended to the referees of this article.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Aguëro, J., Carter, V., & Woolard, I. (2006). The impact of unconditional transfers on nutrition: the South African child support grant. Pretoria: Report for DFID and USAID.Google Scholar
- Ardington, C. & Gasealahwe, B. (2012). Health: Analysis of the NIDS Wave 1 and 2 Datasets. NIDS Discussion Paper/Working Paper Series, 80.Google Scholar
- Benson, T. (2008). Improving nutrition as a development priority: Addressing undernutrition in national policy processes in sub-Saharan Africa. Research Report, 156. IFPRI, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Bilinsky, P., & Swindale, A. (2007). Months of adequate household food provisioning (MAHFP) for measurement of household food access: indicator guide. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project (FANTA), Academy for Educational Development.Google Scholar
- Bourne, L. (1996). Dietary intake in an urban African population in South Africa–with special reference to the nutrition transition. Doctoral Thesis. University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
- Chopra, M., Drimie, S., Witten, C. (2009). Combating malnutrition in South Africa. GAIN Working Paper Series, 1.Google Scholar
- Coates, J., Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2007). Household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) for measurement of food access: Indicator guide, version 3. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project (FANTA).Google Scholar
- Crush, J., & Frayne, B. (2010). The invisible crisis: urban food insecurity in Southern Africa. AFSUN Series, 1Google Scholar
- Crush, J., Frayne, B., Drimie, S., Caesar, M. (2011a). The urban food security and HIV nexus in Africa. Food Security.Google Scholar
- Delany, A., Ismail, Z., Graham, L., Ramkissoon, Y. (2008). Review of the child support grant: Uses, implementation and obstacles. Johannesburg: Department of Social Development, the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) and UNICEF.Google Scholar
- Deleuze, G., Bouzitou, N., Fayomi, B., & Delisle, H. (2005). Child malnutrition and maternal overweight in same households in poor urban areas of Benin. Cahiers d’études et de recherches francophones/Santé, 15, 263–270.Google Scholar
- Department of Health. (2001). South Africa demographic and health survey 1998. Full report. Pretoria: Government of South Africa, Department of Health.Google Scholar
- Department of Health and Medical Research Council. (2003). The South African demographic and health survey (SADHS). Pretoria: Department of Health and Medical Research Council.Google Scholar
- Devereux, S. (2001). Social pensions in Namibia and South Africa. IDS Discussion Paper, 379. Brighton: University of Sussex, IDS.Google Scholar
- Drimie, S., & Garrett, J. (2009). Aligning and transforming institutions to safeguard food security in South Africa: concepts and critique. Washington, DC.: IFPRI.Google Scholar
- Evans, A. (2009). The feeding of the nine billion: global food security for the 21st century. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
- FAO/WHO. (2005). Proceedings from regional conference on food safety for Africa: National food safety systems in Africa–a situation analysis. Harare: FAO/WHO.Google Scholar
- Fotso, J. (2006). Child health inequities in developing countries: Differences across urban and rural areas. International Journal for Equity in Health, 5.Google Scholar
- Frayne, B., Pendleton, W., Crush, J., Acquah, B., Battersby-Lennard, J., Bras, E. et al. (2010). The state of urban food insecurity in southern Africa. Urban Food Security Series, 2. Queen’s University and AFSUN: Kingston and Cape Town.Google Scholar
- Garrett, J., & Ruel, M. (2003). Stunted child-overweight mother pairs: An emerging policy concern? Washington, DC: IFPRI.Google Scholar
- Goedecke, J., Jennings, C. L., & Lambert, E. V. (2006). Obesity in South Africa. In K. Steyn, J. Fourie, & N. Temple (Eds.), Chronic diseases of lifestyle in South Africa: 1995–2005 (pp. 33–47). Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council.Google Scholar
- Guthrie, T. (2002). Assessing the impact of the child support grant on the well-being of children in South Africa: A summary of available evidence. Report for Children’s Institute, University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
- Honeycutt, S., Davis, E., Clawson, E., & Glanz, K. (2010). Training for and dissemination of the nutrition environment measures surveys (NEMS). Prevention of Chronic Disease, 7(6).Google Scholar
- Kruger, H., Venter, C., Vorster, H., & Margetts, B. (2002). Physical inactivity is the major determinant of obesity in black women in the North West Province, South Africa: The THUSA Study. Transition and health during urbanisation of South Africa. Nutrition, 18, 422–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Labadarios, D. (Ed.). (2007). The national food consumption survey – fortification baseline (NFCS-FB). Stellenbosch: Directorate Nutrition, Department of Health.Google Scholar
- Malhotra, R., Hoyo, C., Østbye, T., Hughes, G., Schwartz, D., Tsolekile, L., et al. (2008). Determinants of obesity in an urban township of South Africa. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 21, 315–320.Google Scholar
- McLachlan, M., & Koch, J. (2011). The food security policy context in South Africa. Country study, 21. Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.Google Scholar
- McLachlan, M., & Thorne, J. (2009). Seeding change: a proposal for renewal in the south African food system. Development planning division working paper, 16. Midrand: Development Bank of South Africa.Google Scholar
- Mehta, D. (2000). Urbanisation of poverty. Habitat debate, 6. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT.Google Scholar
- Oldewage-Theron, W., Salami, L., Zotor, F., Venter, C. (2008). Health status of an elderly population in Sharpeville, South Africa. Health SA Gesonheid. Google Scholar
- Pingali, P. (2004). Westernization of African diets and the transformation of food systems: Implications for research and policy (p. 64). Rome: FAO. ESA Working Paper, 64–17.Google Scholar
- Popkin, B. (2004). The nutrition transition and its relationship to demographic change. In D. Semba and M. Bloem, Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries (pp. 601–616).Google Scholar
- Ravallion, M. (2007). Urban poverty. Finance and Development., 44(3), 15–17.Google Scholar
- Reardon, T., Henson, S., & Gulati, A. (2010). Links between supermarkets and food prices, diet diversity and food safety in developing countries. In C. Hawkes, C. Blouin, S. Henson, V. Drager, & L. Dubé (Eds.), Trade, food, diet and health: perspectives and policy options (pp. 111–130). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Ruel, M. (2008). Addressing the underlying determinants of undernutrition: examples of successful integration of nutrition in poverty-reduction and agriculture strategies. SCN News, 36, 21–29.Google Scholar
- Steyn, N. (2006). Nutrition and chronic diseases of lifestyle in South Africa. In K. Steyn, J. Fourie, & N. Temple (Eds.), Chronic diseases of lifestyle in South Africa: 1995–2005 (pp. 33–47). Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council.Google Scholar
- Steyn, N., Labadarios, D., Nel, J., Kruger, H., Maunder. E. (2011). What is the nutritional status of children of obese mothers in South Africa? Nutrition. Resource Document. http://www.nutritionjrnl.com/article/S0899-9007(10)00348-5/. Accessed November 2011.
- Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2006). Household dietary diversity score (HDDS) for measurement of household food access, indicator guid, version 2. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project (FANTA).Google Scholar
- Tibaijuka, A. K. (2009). There is no sustainable development without sustainable urbanisation. 17th Session of the commission on sustainable development (CSD-17) high-level segment. New York: UN-HABITAT.Google Scholar
- UNDP. (2012). Africa human development report 2012: towards a food secure future. New York: United Nations Development Programme Regional Bureau for Africa (RBA).Google Scholar
- UNICEF. (2006). Progress for children. a report card on nutrition, 4. Resource Document. UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/progressforchildren/2006n4/index_breastfeeding.html. Accessed November 2011.
- UNICEF/W. H. O. (2009). Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.Google Scholar
- United Nations (UN). (2008). Health and MDG. Resource Document. http://www.escwa.un.org/divisions/scu/healthMDG/Goal4.pdf. 2008. Accessed November 2011.
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNESA): Population Division. (2011). World urban prospects: The 2011 revision. Resource Document. http://www.un.org/esa/population. Accessed November 2012.
- United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2012). Africa human development report 2012: Towards a food secure future. New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
- UNSCN. (2010). 6 th Report on the world nutrition situation. Resource Document. UNSCN. http://www.unscn.org/files/Publications/RWNS6/html/index.html. Accessed November 2011.
- Von Braun, J., McComb, J., Fred-Mensah, R., & Pandya-Lorch, R. (2003). Urban food insecurity and malnutrition in developing countries: trends, policies, and research implications. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Vorster, H., Kruger, A., & Margetts, B. (2011). The nutrition transition in Africa. Can it be steered into a more positive direction? Nutrients, 3(4), 429–441.Google Scholar
- World Bank. World Bank Open Data. (2012). http://data.worldbank.org. Accessed 2012.
- World Food Program and Food and Agriculture Organisation (WHO/FAO). (2010). The state of food insecurity in the world: Addressing food insecurity in protracted crises. Rome: WFP/FAO.Google Scholar
- World Health Organisation(WHO)/UN Habitat. (2010). Hidden cities: Unmasking and overcoming health inequities in urban settings. Geneva: WHO/UN Habitat.Google Scholar