Nano Research

, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp 307–316 | Cite as

Electrocondensation and evaporation of attoliter water droplets: Direct visualization using atomic force microscopy

  • Narendra Kurra
  • Adina Scott
  • Giridhar U. Kulkarni
Open Access
Research Article


Working with a biased atomic force microscope (AFM) tip in the tapping mode under ambient atmosphere, attoliter (10−18 L) water droplet patterns have been generated on a patterned carbonaceous surface. This is essentially electrocondensation of water leading to charged droplets, as evidenced from electrostatic force microscopy measurements. The droplets are unusual in that they exhibit a highly corrugated surface and evaporate rather slowly, taking several tens of minutes.


Electrocondensation attoliter water droplets biased atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography electron beam induced deposition carbonaceous deposition 

Supplementary material

12274_2010_1034_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 1.1 MB.


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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narendra Kurra
    • 1
  • Adina Scott
    • 2
  • Giridhar U. Kulkarni
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and DST Unit on NanoscienceJawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific ResearchBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Birck Nanotechnology CenterPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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